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400 words each question Doctorate level
1. Explaining How Strategic Intelligence has a Key Influence on Inter-Organisational Planning and Decision-Making
When making this answer, Learners could start with writers such as Ackoff who notes that no amount of analysis will right the wrong thing including his view of analysis and diagnosis. This dichotomy represents a major cultural difference in the way organisations deal with and interpret strategic intelligence and hence their confidence in that intelligence to inform the development, implementation and review of inter-organisational policy and strategy and so is only one approach that could be used.
2. Examining the Concept of “Acceptable Risk” Associated with the Gathering and Use of Strategic Intelligence
Learners might explore two differing views, one strategic intelligence based on data collection
and detailed analysis and another, strategic intelligence based on holism, identifying weak signals and emergence. These two views require different management competences and behaviours. A full answer might argue these two views in context of a national and international organisation and their culture and norms.
In explaining how strategic intelligence has a key influence in inter-organisational planning and decision – making a full answer could build on the response to assessment criterion 3.2 and explain how the two views discussed above, contribute or don’t contribute to inter-organisational planning and decision-making.
3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Risk Theories and Models Used in Inter-Organisational Strategic Planning
n examining the concept of “acceptable risk” associated with the gathering and use of strategic data and intelligence, a full answer could summarise the pros and cons associated with Frequentist versus Bayesian statistics. Frequentist statistics assume data is normally distributed and that “acceptable risks” falls within agreed and predefined control limits, for example, +/- 2 to 3 standard deviations either side of the norm.
Alternatively, Bayesian statistic deals with probabilities of events (Black Swans). It is not expected that a full answer would described the detailed mathematics of the two approaches but simply summarising the main differences and in particular how these two approaches are dealt with or not within an organisation.
Learners should explore what is “acceptable risk” in context of an organisations history and evolution noting that organisations don’t have any memory.
Here Learners are again required to evaluate. Learners are required to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk theories and models used in inter-organisational strategic planning. A full answer could draw on the response to assessment criteria 3.4. This answer could also expand on the MOST dimensions:
• ● Management
• ● Operational
• ● Social
• ● T echnical
(Assessment criteria 2.4), but also comment on
• ● Prevention of risk
• ● Prediction of risk
• ● Transference of risk
You might further include some comments on the relevance of underpinning knowledge (know how’s) and behaviours required to manage risk in different inter organisational contexts.
4. Evaluate the Concepts of Culture, Character, Ethos, Beliefs, Attitudes and Needs and How They Impact on The Development and Management of Inter- Organisational Alliances and Coalitions
When evaluating the concepts of culture, character, ethos, beliefs, attitudes and needs and how they impact on the development and management of inter-organisational alliances and coalitions, Learners could draw upon the work of Hofstede and national cultural differences. This could also include some comments on values, beliefs, religions and how these impact on Mega Marketing ideas (Kotler). A full response could also draw upon the use of fairy stories and
metaphors which give an indication of national values and beliefs.
In assessing the influence of domestic, national and multi-national contexts on the development and implementation of inter-organisational policy and strategy, answers could draw upon the response to assessment criteria 4.1 and the use of “fairy stories” and metaphors to identify the underlying beliefs and values of domestic, national and multi-national organisations.
A full answer could also draw upon the impact of recent histories which impact domestic, national and multi-national development and implementation of inter-organisational policy and strategy, for example, WWII, The Long March in China, The Cuban and French revolutions, the end of apartheid in South Africa, local wars for drugs, oil and water resources, and the changing international influences of the emerging global players.