According to the texts, describe how the following roles/person relate to the transition planning process and how each role/person is important to the process:

1. According to the texts, describe how the following roles/person relate to the transition planning process and how each role/person is important to the process:
.Parent and/or guardian
.Teacher
.Student
2.  What are some factors that contribute to a successful transition planning process?
Include 1-2 specific examples from the readings that touch upon student perspectives, teacher perspectives, and a policy perspective
3. What are some barriers to successful transition planning? Provide at least 2 examples from the readings and explain why these are important barriers to think about.
4.  Look back at your Baseline Survey, what, if anything, has changed in regards to your understanding of, and orientation towards, special education?
Please number and add citations
These four pages provide an overview of the effects of the newly reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA 2004) on transition services. They are excerpted from California’s newly published resource for transition,
Transition to Adult Living, and offer a glimpse of the wide range of information and supports contained in the
guide for students, parents, and teachers involved in transition. To download an interactive version of the complete,
270-page guide, go to www.calstat.org/transitionGuide.html. To request a free hard copy, email donna.lee@calstat.
org or fax your order to 707-206-9176.
Transition to Adult Living
An Information and Resource Guide
Legal Requirements
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Th e IDEA of 1990 required planning for post-school transition at IEP meetings
for all students with disabilities. Th e law required that students be invited to
attend the IEP meeting and that transition services and planning be addressed in
the following areas:
• Instruction
• Employment and other post-school adult living objectives
• Community experiences
• If appropriate, daily living skills
• Functional vocational evaluation
Th e IDEA of 1997 further expanded transition planning in the IEP to include
related services necessary to achieve the activities stated in the transition plan and
required procedures for the transfer of legal rights from the parent to the student
upon reaching the age of majority under state law.
Q.
A.
Are education agencies responsible for preparing students
for their futures?
Yes. IDEA ’04 continues to reinforce the intention that education
agencies will assist students to successfully transition from school
to adult living. Its purpose clearly states the legislative intent that
education agencies prepare students for life after leaving school:
(d) PURPOSES.—Th e purposes of this title are—
(1)(A) to ensure that all children with disabilities have available
to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes
special education and related services designed to meet their unique
needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and
independent living. (Section 601, emphasis added)
What It Means
Th e primary purpose of the
IDEA is to ensure that children
and youth with disabilities have
a right to a free appropriate public
education; but it also means that
education agencies will prepare
them for activities after leaving
school. Th ese activities include
attending college, training for
employment, getting a job, living
independently, and participating
in the life of the community.
Winter/Spring 2007 Insert to The Special EDge 1
2
Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide IDEA 2004 Excerpt
2 Insert to The Special EDge Winter/Spring 2007
What is the defi nition of “transition services”?
Th e defi nition of transition services in the IDEA ’04 explains how
improving a student’s academic and functional achievement will
improve the transition from school to adult living:
(34) TRANSITION SERVICES.
—Th e term “transition services” means a coordinated set of activities
for a child with a disability that—
(A) is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is
focused on improving the academic and functional achievement
of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement
from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary
education, vocational education, integrated employment (including
supported employment), continuing and adult education,
adult services, independent living, or community participation.
(Section 602, emphasis added)
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e IDEA expects that local
education agencies, community
and state agencies, and
families will work together to
design educational programs
that prepare students with
disabilities for life after leaving
school. Th e IDEA lists specifi c
results: improved academic and
functional achievement that will
off er youth choices in adult life.
Th ese choices include continued
education, employment, and the
ability to assume adult roles.
What It Means
General and special educators
coordinate activities with the
student to assist the student in
identifying his or her strengths,
interests, and preferences for
post-school activities—such as
further education, training, or
employment—and to help the
student achieve those goals.
General and special educators
coordinate activities to ensure
that students with disabilities
receive a standards-based or
functional education, individually
determined according to
student need, with appropriate
supports, services, accommodations,
and modifi cations to be
successful in school and beyond
school. Additionally, students
receive instruction and engage
in activities that prepare them
for the world of work and life in
their community.
Local education agencies
coordinate with community
and state agencies involved with
higher education, employment
training, and services for adults
with disabilities to (continued)
Q.
A.
What is the coordinated set of activities designed to help
students move from school to adult living?
Th e defi nition of transition services is a coordinated set of activities.
Th e activities to which the IDEA refers have a concerted purpose: to
help students move successfully from school to adult living. Improving
a student’s academic and functional performance while in school
increases the student’s chances for a better future. Best practices
involve helping the student understand the connection between school
and careers, coordinating all stakeholders—the student, the family, the
school, and other service providers—and having the student’s goals for
the future as the focus of all activities.
Th e defi nition further clarifi es that transition services are based on
the student’s interests and include the areas of instruction, community
experiences, the development of employment or other goals (such as
further education), and any other related services the student may need
to achieve his or her long-term goals.
(34) TRANSITION SERVICES.
—Th e term “transition services” means a coordinated set of activities
for a child with a disability that—
(A) is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is
focused on improving the academic and functional achievement
of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement
from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education,
vocational education, integrated employment (including
supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult
services, independent living, or community participation;
Winter/Spring 2007 Insert to The Special EDge 3
IDEA 2004 Excerpt Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide
3
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e defi nition of transition services clarifi es that
when education agencies and families develop
transition services language in the IEP, it must
be based on the student’s strengths, interests, and
ideas about what he/she wants to do when fi nished
with school. Students may not know what
they want to do after leaving school or they may
not have realistic goals; so the transition services
language should include activities that help students
make informed decisions to formulate realistic
goals that match their unique personalities,
interests, and preferences. Once student interest
and preference have been identifi ed, the IDEA
identifi es the areas to be addressed in transition
services language in the IEP (see below):
What is the required transition services
language in the IEP?
Th e defi nition of transition services in the IDEA ’04
further explains that transition planning is studentcentered
and focused on the student’s goals. Specifi c
areas must be addressed in transition planning in the
IEP. Transition services refer to a set of activities that:
Areas to Be Addressed . . .
in transition services language in the IEP
Instruction
Th e IEP is an individualized instructional and support
plan for students with disabilities. Th e transition
planning, activities, and services detailed in the IEP
align instruction with the student’s post-school goals.
For most students, participation in a standards-based
instructional program will provide them the requisite
skills to enter college, further training, or employment.
Many students benefi t from seeing the connection
between school and career by participating in schooland
work-based instructional experiences, while others
may need more intensive functional skills training
to enter the world of work.
Related services
Th e plan must describe any related services the
student may need—such as transportation to a work
experience or career counseling—to help the student
prepare for his or her future goals.
(B) is based on the individual child’s needs, taking
into account the child’s strengths, preferences, and
interests; and
(C) includes instruction, related services, community
experiences, the development of employment
and other post-school adult living objectives, and,
when appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills
and functional vocational evaluation.
(Section 602)
better inform students about the options available
after leaving school.
Local education agencies work with families to
develop transition plans designed to help students
reach their future goals and, ideally, provide information
to families about post-school options and
adult services for their children.
Community experiences
Instructional activities may take place in the community,
such as community-based instruction, to help students
generalize the skills learned in the classroom to the real
world.
Employment
All students should have employment-related language in
their IEP. For some students this may be a goal to enter
higher education; for others it may mean job training or
supported employment; and for others still, going to work
right after leaving school may be the goal. Regardless of
what the goals are, schools should help students identify
their goals and develop plans that prepare the students
toachieve them.
Daily living skills and functional
evaluation, if appropriate
Some students need specifi c instruction and activities in
order to learn to take care of themselves and live as independently
as possible. Some students may need a functional
evaluation to determine which skills they will need
to develop so that they are able to enter employment or live
independently.
(B) is based on the individual child’s needs, taking into
account the child’s strengths, preferences, and interests;
and
(C) includes instruction, related services, community
experiences, the development of employment and other
post-school adult living objectives, and when appropriate,
acquisition of daily living skills and functional
vocational evaluation. (Section 602, Article 34)
4
Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide IDEA 2004 Excerpt
Insert to The Special EDge Winter/Spring 2007
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e IEP that is developed on or before the student’s
sixteenth birthday must contain transition service
language.
If the student turns 16 before the next scheduled
IEP meeting, the IEP team is required to develop
transition services language and identify needed services
during the IEP when the student is 15 years old, so that
the plan is in eff ect when the student turns 16. However,
it may be appropriate for many students to begin
discussing the connection between school and careers
as early as elementary school. For other students it may
be appropriate to include transition services language
in the IEP during middle school or when the student
moves from middle to high school in order to identify
appropriate courses of study that support the student’s
post-school goals.
When must transition service language
be included in the IEP?
Not later than the student’s sixteenth birthday.
Th e point in time when transition language
must be added to the IEP for students
with disabilities was raised from the age of
14 in the IDEA of ‘97 to the age of 16 in
the IDEA ’04. However, for many students,
beginning transition services earlier than
16 may be appropriate. And the IDEA ’04
allows for it:
(VIII) beginning not later than the fi rst
IEP to be in eff ect when the child is 16, and
updated annually thereafter.
[Section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)]
What It Means
Th e use of the term “goal” to describe both what
students want to happen once they leave school
and also to describe what schools must do to help
students achieve their long-term objectives can
be confusing. Th e IDEA ’04 requires transition
services language in the IEP to include postsecondary
goals, or the student’s aspirations for his or her
future. Th e IDEA ’04 also requires annual goals in
the IEP to help students achieve their goals for the
future. Annual, measurable goals in the IEP should
be written each year to help the student achieve his
or her post-school goals. Th e annual goals must be
designed and reasonably calculated to assist students
to achieve their long-term goals and must be included
in the IEP no later than the student’s sixteenth
birthday, or earlier if appropriate. Th e postsecondary
goal is what the student wants and hopes for his or
her future in terms of higher education, employment,
and independent living. Th e annual, measurable
goals in the IEP are what schools will do to help the
Q.
A.
What are measurable postsecondary goals?
Th e IDEA ’04 adds a new requirement for
transition services language in the IEP, the development
of measurable postsecondary goals
based on age-appropriate transition assessments.
Th e IEP for students 16 years old or younger, if
appropriate, must contain:
(aa) appropriate measurable postsecondary
goals based upon age-appropriate transition
assessments related to training, education,
employment, and, where appropriate,
independent living skills;
(bb) the transition services (including courses
of study) needed to assist the child in reaching
those goals. [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII)]
student in high school, or earlier if appropriate, to achieve long-term goals. Th e annual goals are still included under the
headings described in the defi nition of transition services above, which include instruction, employment, community
experiences, and related services, and, if appropriate, daily living skills and functional evaluation. Th e annual goals must
be based on age-appropriate transition assessments in the areas of training, education, and, if appropriate, independent
living. Th ey must also support the student’s postsecondary or long-term goals for the future.
Additionally, the transition services language must include any needed transition services, including a course of study
that a student may need in order to accomplish his or her post-school goals. Some examples of needed transition services
may include participation in career exploration and preparation experiences, career guidance counseling, and establishing
connections with adult service providers.
These four pages provide an overview of the effects of the newly reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA 2004) on transition services. They are excerpted from California’s newly published resource for transition,
Transition to Adult Living, and offer a glimpse of the wide range of information and supports contained in the
guide for students, parents, and teachers involved in transition. To download an interactive version of the complete,
270-page guide, go to www.calstat.org/transitionGuide.html. To request a free hard copy, email donna.lee@calstat.
org or fax your order to 707-206-9176.
Transition to Adult Living
An Information and Resource Guide
Legal Requirements
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Th e IDEA of 1990 required planning for post-school transition at IEP meetings
for all students with disabilities. Th e law required that students be invited to
attend the IEP meeting and that transition services and planning be addressed in
the following areas:
• Instruction
• Employment and other post-school adult living objectives
• Community experiences
• If appropriate, daily living skills
• Functional vocational evaluation
Th e IDEA of 1997 further expanded transition planning in the IEP to include
related services necessary to achieve the activities stated in the transition plan and
required procedures for the transfer of legal rights from the parent to the student
upon reaching the age of majority under state law.
Q.
A.
Are education agencies responsible for preparing students
for their futures?
Yes. IDEA ’04 continues to reinforce the intention that education
agencies will assist students to successfully transition from school
to adult living. Its purpose clearly states the legislative intent that
education agencies prepare students for life after leaving school:
(d) PURPOSES.—Th e purposes of this title are—
(1)(A) to ensure that all children with disabilities have available
to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes
special education and related services designed to meet their unique
needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and
independent living. (Section 601, emphasis added)
What It Means
Th e primary purpose of the
IDEA is to ensure that children
and youth with disabilities have
a right to a free appropriate public
education; but it also means that
education agencies will prepare
them for activities after leaving
school. Th ese activities include
attending college, training for
employment, getting a job, living
independently, and participating
in the life of the community.
Winter/Spring 2007 Insert to The Special EDge 1
2
Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide IDEA 2004 Excerpt
2 Insert to The Special EDge Winter/Spring 2007
What is the defi nition of “transition services”?
Th e defi nition of transition services in the IDEA ’04 explains how
improving a student’s academic and functional achievement will
improve the transition from school to adult living:
(34) TRANSITION SERVICES.
—Th e term “transition services” means a coordinated set of activities
for a child with a disability that—
(A) is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is
focused on improving the academic and functional achievement
of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement
from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary
education, vocational education, integrated employment (including
supported employment), continuing and adult education,
adult services, independent living, or community participation.
(Section 602, emphasis added)
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e IDEA expects that local
education agencies, community
and state agencies, and
families will work together to
design educational programs
that prepare students with
disabilities for life after leaving
school. Th e IDEA lists specifi c
results: improved academic and
functional achievement that will
off er youth choices in adult life.
Th ese choices include continued
education, employment, and the
ability to assume adult roles.
What It Means
General and special educators
coordinate activities with the
student to assist the student in
identifying his or her strengths,
interests, and preferences for
post-school activities—such as
further education, training, or
employment—and to help the
student achieve those goals.
General and special educators
coordinate activities to ensure
that students with disabilities
receive a standards-based or
functional education, individually
determined according to
student need, with appropriate
supports, services, accommodations,
and modifi cations to be
successful in school and beyond
school. Additionally, students
receive instruction and engage
in activities that prepare them
for the world of work and life in
their community.
Local education agencies
coordinate with community
and state agencies involved with
higher education, employment
training, and services for adults
with disabilities to (continued)
Q.
A.
What is the coordinated set of activities designed to help
students move from school to adult living?
Th e defi nition of transition services is a coordinated set of activities.
Th e activities to which the IDEA refers have a concerted purpose: to
help students move successfully from school to adult living. Improving
a student’s academic and functional performance while in school
increases the student’s chances for a better future. Best practices
involve helping the student understand the connection between school
and careers, coordinating all stakeholders—the student, the family, the
school, and other service providers—and having the student’s goals for
the future as the focus of all activities.
Th e defi nition further clarifi es that transition services are based on
the student’s interests and include the areas of instruction, community
experiences, the development of employment or other goals (such as
further education), and any other related services the student may need
to achieve his or her long-term goals.
(34) TRANSITION SERVICES.
—Th e term “transition services” means a coordinated set of activities
for a child with a disability that—
(A) is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is
focused on improving the academic and functional achievement
of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement
from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education,
vocational education, integrated employment (including
supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult
services, independent living, or community participation;
Winter/Spring 2007 Insert to The Special EDge 3
IDEA 2004 Excerpt Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide
3
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e defi nition of transition services clarifi es that
when education agencies and families develop
transition services language in the IEP, it must
be based on the student’s strengths, interests, and
ideas about what he/she wants to do when fi nished
with school. Students may not know what
they want to do after leaving school or they may
not have realistic goals; so the transition services
language should include activities that help students
make informed decisions to formulate realistic
goals that match their unique personalities,
interests, and preferences. Once student interest
and preference have been identifi ed, the IDEA
identifi es the areas to be addressed in transition
services language in the IEP (see below):
What is the required transition services
language in the IEP?
Th e defi nition of transition services in the IDEA ’04
further explains that transition planning is studentcentered
and focused on the student’s goals. Specifi c
areas must be addressed in transition planning in the
IEP. Transition services refer to a set of activities that:
Areas to Be Addressed . . .
in transition services language in the IEP
Instruction
Th e IEP is an individualized instructional and support
plan for students with disabilities. Th e transition
planning, activities, and services detailed in the IEP
align instruction with the student’s post-school goals.
For most students, participation in a standards-based
instructional program will provide them the requisite
skills to enter college, further training, or employment.
Many students benefi t from seeing the connection
between school and career by participating in schooland
work-based instructional experiences, while others
may need more intensive functional skills training
to enter the world of work.
Related services
Th e plan must describe any related services the
student may need—such as transportation to a work
experience or career counseling—to help the student
prepare for his or her future goals.
(B) is based on the individual child’s needs, taking
into account the child’s strengths, preferences, and
interests; and
(C) includes instruction, related services, community
experiences, the development of employment
and other post-school adult living objectives, and,
when appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills
and functional vocational evaluation.
(Section 602)
better inform students about the options available
after leaving school.
Local education agencies work with families to
develop transition plans designed to help students
reach their future goals and, ideally, provide information
to families about post-school options and
adult services for their children.
Community experiences
Instructional activities may take place in the community,
such as community-based instruction, to help students
generalize the skills learned in the classroom to the real
world.
Employment
All students should have employment-related language in
their IEP. For some students this may be a goal to enter
higher education; for others it may mean job training or
supported employment; and for others still, going to work
right after leaving school may be the goal. Regardless of
what the goals are, schools should help students identify
their goals and develop plans that prepare the students
toachieve them.
Daily living skills and functional
evaluation, if appropriate
Some students need specifi c instruction and activities in
order to learn to take care of themselves and live as independently
as possible. Some students may need a functional
evaluation to determine which skills they will need
to develop so that they are able to enter employment or live
independently.
(B) is based on the individual child’s needs, taking into
account the child’s strengths, preferences, and interests;
and
(C) includes instruction, related services, community
experiences, the development of employment and other
post-school adult living objectives, and when appropriate,
acquisition of daily living skills and functional
vocational evaluation. (Section 602, Article 34)
4
Transition to Adult Living: An Information and Resource Guide IDEA 2004 Excerpt
Insert to The Special EDge Winter/Spring 2007
Q.
A.
What It Means
Th e IEP that is developed on or before the student’s
sixteenth birthday must contain transition service
language.
If the student turns 16 before the next scheduled
IEP meeting, the IEP team is required to develop
transition services language and identify needed services
during the IEP when the student is 15 years old, so that
the plan is in eff ect when the student turns 16. However,
it may be appropriate for many students to begin
discussing the connection between school and careers
as early as elementary school. For other students it may
be appropriate to include transition services language
in the IEP during middle school or when the student
moves from middle to high school in order to identify
appropriate courses of study that support the student’s
post-school goals.
When must transition service language
be included in the IEP?
Not later than the student’s sixteenth birthday.
Th e point in time when transition language
must be added to the IEP for students
with disabilities was raised from the age of
14 in the IDEA of ‘97 to the age of 16 in
the IDEA ’04. However, for many students,
beginning transition services earlier than
16 may be appropriate. And the IDEA ’04
allows for it:
(VIII) beginning not later than the fi rst
IEP to be in eff ect when the child is 16, and
updated annually thereafter.
[Section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)]
What It Means
Th e use of the term “goal” to describe both what
students want to happen once they leave school
and also to describe what schools must do to help
students achieve their long-term objectives can
be confusing. Th e IDEA ’04 requires transition
services language in the IEP to include postsecondary
goals, or the student’s aspirations for his or her
future. Th e IDEA ’04 also requires annual goals in
the IEP to help students achieve their goals for the
future. Annual, measurable goals in the IEP should
be written each year to help the student achieve his
or her post-school goals. Th e annual goals must be
designed and reasonably calculated to assist students
to achieve their long-term goals and must be included
in the IEP no later than the student’s sixteenth
birthday, or earlier if appropriate. Th e postsecondary
goal is what the student wants and hopes for his or
her future in terms of higher education, employment,
and independent living. Th e annual, measurable
goals in the IEP are what schools will do to help the
Q.
A.
What are measurable postsecondary goals?
Th e IDEA ’04 adds a new requirement for
transition services language in the IEP, the development
of measurable postsecondary goals
based on age-appropriate transition assessments.
Th e IEP for students 16 years old or younger, if
appropriate, must contain:
(aa) appropriate measurable postsecondary
goals based upon age-appropriate transition
assessments related to training, education,
employment, and, where appropriate,
independent living skills;
(bb) the transition services (including courses
of study) needed to assist the child in reaching
those goals. [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII)]
student in high school, or earlier if appropriate, to achieve long-term goals. Th e annual goals are still included under the
headings described in the defi nition of transition services above, which include instruction, employment, community
experiences, and related services, and, if appropriate, daily living skills and functional evaluation. Th e annual goals must
be based on age-appropriate transition assessments in the areas of training, education, and, if appropriate, independent
living. Th ey must also support the student’s postsecondary or long-term goals for the future.
Additionally, the transition services language must include any needed transition services, including a course of study
that a student may need in order to accomplish his or her post-school goals. Some examples of needed transition services
may include participation in career exploration and preparation experiences, career guidance counseling, and establishing
connections with adult service providers.

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