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APA In-text Citations
APA-style citations examples from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th edition), 2010. (For materials not covered in these examples, see Chapter Six,
Crediting Sources, pages 169-192.)
Citing Direct Quotes: When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page
citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material (see section 6.05) in the text and
include a complete reference in the reference list.
According to Csikal & Chaitin (2006) “medical needs are met by those in the medical
disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (p. 112).
“Medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be
addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikal & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).
Basu and Jones (2007) suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework in which to
consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace” (para. 4).
Quotations of 40 or more words begin on a new line and are indented about a half inch from
the left margin. Quotation marks are omitted. The first line of additional paragraphs within the
quotation is indented an additional half inch. Cite the source and the page or paragraph
number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.
Co-presence does not ensure interaction among all group members. Consider largescale
social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to
perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the
group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with
those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997,
One Work by One Author: The author—date method of citation requires that the surname of
the author and the year of publication be inserted in the text at the appropriate point:
Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological studies….
Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).
In 2003, Kessler’s study of epidemiological samples showed that ….
Even if the reference includes month and year, include only the year in the text citation.
One Work by Multiple Authors: When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the
reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first
time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, cite only the surname of the first author
followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al.) and the year if it is the first citation
of the reference within the paragraph.
Kisangue, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found… [Use as first citation in text.]
Kisangue, et al. (2007) found… [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph
Kisangue, et al. found… [Omit year from subsequent citations after first
nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph. Include the year in subsequent citations if
first citation within a paragraph is parenthetical.]
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et
al. (not italicized and with a period after al.) and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
Groups as Authors: Names of groups as authors (e.g., corporations, associations, government
agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation.
Authors with the Same Surname: If a reference list includes publications by two or more
primary authors with the same surname, include the first author’s initials in all text citations,
even if the year of publication differs. Initials help the reader to avoid confusion within the text
and to locate the entry in the list of references.
Works with No Identified Author or with an Anonymous Author: Cite in text the first few
words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use quotation marks around
the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a
brochure, or a report:
…on free care (“Study Finds,” 2007)…
…the book College Bound Seniors (2008)…
Treat references to legal materials like references to works with no author (see Appendix 7.1).
Two or More Works within the Same Parenthesis: Order the citations of two or more works
within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the
reference list (including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al.)
Training materials are available (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2001, 2003)…
Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with
the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth, after the year; repeat the year.
Several studies (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b, in press-a, Rothbart, 2003a, 2003b)…
List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in
alphabetical order by the first author’s surname.
Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998)…
Secondary Sources: Give the secondary source in the reference list; in text, name the original
work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Allport’s work is cited in
Nicholson and you did not read Allport’s work, list the Nicholson reference in the reference list.
Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)…
Citing Specific Parts of a Source: Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the
appropriate point in the text. Always give page numbers for quotations (see section 6.03).
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005, p. 10)
(Shimamura, 1989, Chapter 3)
Personal Communications: Because personal communications are not recoverable, they
are not included in the reference list but should be included as an in-text citation.
T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
(V. G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
Citations in Parenthetical Material: Use commas, not brackets, to set off the date.
(see Table 3 of U. S. Department of Labor, 2007, for complete data)