– Assignment: Research Design Project Step 1 3  Resources are v video links incl

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– Assignment: Research Design Project Step 1
3  Resources are v video links included 
Watch these short 3 videos
.
This assignment is designed to help you differentiate between the concepts of variables, validity, and reliability, which is important information to know when evaluating and condu
Submit your completed worksheet below by The deadline.
Complete the 
Research Variables, Validity, and Reliability
Task 1
In each item below, you are given a brief description of a research study.  For each, identify one
or more independent variables (IV), and a dependent variable (DV). Remember, the independent
variable is the input, the cause, the manipulation, the explanation, the treatment.  The dependent
variable is the effect, the output, the response, the outcome.
Study #1:
This study explored the amount of oral production errors students were able to self-correct based
on the type of feedback provided by their teacher.  In one class period, students received explicit
correction.  In another, students received recasts (their language repeated back to them, in correct
form), and in a third they received metalinguistic feedback (grammatical rules given).
IV =
DV =
Study #2:
In this study, 7thgrade students were investigated on their ability to retain the grammar rules that
were presented by their teacher.  Two groups of students were studied. One was tested on their
knowledge of grammar rules through a multiple choice assessment, and the other group was
required to provide short answer responses stating grammar rules.
IV =
DV =
Study #3:
Nowadays, there is a push to utilize technology in teaching, in particular with younger learners.
But can technology or type of technology improve students scores on a standardized
achievement exam?  One group of students utilized interactive technology in their lessons.
Another group used non-interactive technology.  And a third group studied the regular
curriculum without any technology support at all.
IV =
DV =
Study #4
It is well known that vocabulary learning is a complex task and involves a range of skills.  This
study investigated the collaborative nature of vocabulary learning.  The researcher observed
reading hour in an elementary school reading program. He then trained the teacher to use
group and pair activities.  The teacher implemented this new approach with each subsequent
reading unit, after which a vocabulary assessment was given and scores were compared with
previous units scores which were obtained prior to the training.
IV =
DV =
Study #5
It is often believed that anxiety in learning is a detrimental trait, though researchers have
proposed that some level of anxiety may actually be beneficial.  It is also possible that there are
differential effects of anxiety based on gender.  In this study, students were given an anxiety
measure and were then classified as possessing either a low, moderate, or high level anxiety.
They were then given a survey which explored their self-reported perception of their emotions
during a difficult math task.  Results were further examined in terms of the participants gender.
IV =
DV =
Study #6
It has been demonstrated that pronunciation difficulties persist in second language learners oral
production, and the English vowel system is particularly difficult to master because of its
complexity.  Teachers may wonder if it is better simply to engage students in listen and repeat
efforts to improve their pronunciation, or whether it is helpful to provide articulatory
explanations as well.  A research study examined this issue in terms of ELD students production
of English vowels.
IV =
DV =
Task 2
Constructs become variables when they are operationally definedthat is, defined in terms of
processes or operations that can be observed and measured. Turn each of the following
constructs into a variable by providing an operational definition.  There may be several suitable
responses for each.
Example:  Personality
Personality will be classified on a continuum ranging from introvert to extrovert.
Students complete a 30-item Likert questionnaire asking about their behavior in certain
situations (e.g., At a party, are you more likely to…). A higher score indicates
introversion and a lower score indicates extroversion.
Effectiveness (in teaching)

Motivation (to learn math)

Satisfaction (with a course)

Writing Proficiency

Task 3
Validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
and therefore allows appropriate interpretation of results.  Which of these three types of
validity is relevant to the following descriptions:  Construct validity, face validity, or content
validity.
1.   Your dissertation explores the writing process.  As part of your data collection, you use
an instrument which asks students to engage in peer brainstorming before writing their
essay.  However, the student participants do not understand how talking to their
classmates is going to improve their writing ability.  To the students, brainstorming does
not have what kind of validity?

2.   When reading a professional journal, you locate a dissertation from Podunk University in
which the study participants level of anxiety was assessed based on the number of times
per minute they blinked their eyes.  This seems odd to you, so you turn to the studys
literature review to see what kind of theoretical support exists for this design choice.
There is none.  You therefore conclude that this dissertation design lacks what kind of
validity?

3.   Marcus received a low score on his grammar class final exam.  Upon reviewing the exam
after it was returned to him, he noticed that most of the items that he missed were related
to conditionals and noun clauses.  However, those two chapters in the textbook were not
covered in class before the semester ended.  We can say that the exam lacked what kind
of validity?

Task 4
Reliability refers to whether or not an instrument consistently measures what it intends to
measure over time. Match each description with the correct type of reliability:
Test-retest (stability)
Equivalent forms
Split-half
Inter-rater
Intra-rater
A.  Marjorie needs to collect observational data for her dissertation.  She realizes that she
will get a truer picture of the class if she observes it on multiple occasions rather than on
just one occasion.

B.  Cameron repeated the administration of his instrument on two different occasions and
correlated the scores.

C.  Heidi has computed the scores for even and odd numbered items on her test, and then
correlated them.

D.  Trevor developed a new measure of motivation. He generated two forms of the
instrument.  He gave one form to his class one day, and then gave the second form the
next day.  He then examined the scores among items on each of his instruments. He
correlated the results of the tests.

E.   Marty is team-teaching a writing class.  When the students submit their essays, Marty
reads them and records a tentative grade. He then gives the essays to his co-teacher, who
also assigns tentative grades. Marty and his co-teacher then meet to compare their
evaluations and to assign a final grade.

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