The attached reading provides overview of the research on biological and psychological perspectives, as well as discusses strain and culture deviance theories. After reviewing the reading, as well as the week 2 discussion articles in the lesson for this week, discuss/debate with your classmates your position pertaining to biological and psychological perspectives of explaining crime. Also, examine below listed theory that explains crime and articulate why you either strongly agree or disagree with it.
ENA theory more or less “straddles the fence” in terms of nature and nurture. The basic premise of the theory is that criminal activity is learned from being exposed to and having it modeled by others (nurture); however, ENA theorists also hold that the desire or motivation to commit criminal acts is biological or instinctual. In other words, ENA is founded upon evolutionary (learned/nurture) and neurological (nature) concepts.
The support for the belief that criminal activity is learned or a result of evolution is that rehabilitation is effective with some criminals. However, there are other criminals, like serial killers, who do not respond favorably to rehabilitation or retraining efforts and ergo, ENA theorists maintain that the urge or desire to continue in criminal activity is not learned, but innately infused within the person’s biological make-up and evolution is at the root of this.
The overall basis for ENA’s biological or nature perspective is that mankind has evolved in terms of what females desire in future mates – the mate to be a strong provider. Therefore, the strong male providers have, over multiple generations, continued to evolve into stronger and more competent providers, which in turn has increased the competition to be referred to as the strongest and best. This competition can and has led to criminal behavior, particularly concerning victimization – the learned part of behavior.
The implication of ENA theory is centered upon the issue that the majority of criminals are males. However, the explanation for female criminal behavior is similarly based on the concept of competition for the most successful provider serves as the motivator to commit criminal activities given the biological factors are present as well as the nurturing effect of having criminal behavior modeled. In other words, females who have the biological tendencies to commit a crime and observe other females’ criminal behaviors resulting in attracting strong providers, leads to their commission of crime due to competition just like the males.
Interestingly, ENA theory focuses more on the prevention of criminal behavior. Each of the preventative approaches involves the use of drugs that are designed to modify or alleviate the bio-neurological factors that are believed to cause deviant behavior as well as the inclusion of rehabilitation and retraining of those who have already committed crimes. However, ENA theorists do support the concept of long-term imprisonment of those who have committed serious and or heinous crimes to limit their contributions to the gene pool of society.
File attached is a word document of the chapter.
Read Chapter 3 Pages 64 – 92 in your textbook.
Complete a minimum TWO-page outline of the Chapter by submitting your outline as a “File Upload”.
I also encourage students to utilize critical thinking skills by inserting their own comments and opinions regarding the topic in this chapter.
Key Terms to look for:
Broken Windows Phenomenon
Read the Multi-Jurisdictional Drug Units case study starting on p. 335, Ch. 11 of Criminal Justice Organizations. Note: Access the case study via the Criminal Justice Organizations Case Study link in the Wk 4 Learning Activities folder.
Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper answering the questions at the end of the case study. Emphasize strategies that could have prevented much of the conflict that occurred in the scenario. Use the questions in “Think like an Administrator” on p. 337 for possible topics to cover.
Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
Please select one of the following:
1) Define security levels and describe the five security levels within the Bureau of Prisons (BOP).
2) Define the differential association theory. How does the theory relate to corrections, specifically, classification?
3) Discuss the GRAD program and the criteria needed to enter the program.
4) What are the goals of the classification system? What do these goals hinge on?
Discussion Board Initial Essay and Peer Response Essay
Discussion Board Initial Posts follow Reflection Essays and they are due by Friday 11:59 pm central of each assigned module. There is one required discussion board question for each textbook chapter. Timely submission is expected in order to meet objectives of participation, allowing the course professor and peer students an opportunity to read your work, ask questions, ask for clarification, when needed, and to otherwise engage in a dialogue with you. Please make sure you read all posts and respond appropriately to follow-up questions from the professor within 48 hours. Discussion Board essays must be a minimum of 150 words and must follow APA style for in-text citations and references. You must reference and cite the assigned textbook. I have written the textbook in APA style in this Syllabus to serve as an example. In addition to citing the course textbook, you must find, read, and cite at least two additional scholarly articles to support your essay. These additional sources cannot be ones found in the courseroom. The most logical place to look for quality supporting articles that are scholarly is in the journal article area of the online university library. Please see the Grading Rubric prior to submission for further information. Please see the Syllabus Course Schedule section for due dates. Please see the Syllabus Late Work section. Please submit your Discussion Forum posts in the Discussion Box, rather than as an attachment.
This essay has to be written in American English.
Essay has to be between 1500-1600 words.
•‘Analyse is defined as considering “a concept, statement, or situation, identify[ing] the differentcomponents it is made up of, and describe[ing] how the components relate to each other. Your answershould be methodical and logically organised.”; and
•‘Critically’ is “[o]ften used in conjunction with other directive words, such as critically discuss, criticallyexamine or critically analyse. It does not mean criticise. It is asking you to give a balanced answer thatpoints out mistakes or weaknesses and any favourable aspects of the subject of the question. The decisionor overall judgment you make must be supported with evidence from reliable sources” [although the essaymust be written in third person rather than in first]
You are a member of the Scottsdale Police Department’s team of strategy leaders and your role is to develop a strategy for measuring the outcomes of the strategic plan.
Write a 525-word outline in which you summarize a strategy for measuring the outcomes of the Scottsdale Police Department’s strategic plan.
Include the following in your outline:
Stages of plan implementation
Overview of stakeholders involved in the process
Examples for measurements of outcomes
Rationale and justifications for measuring outcomes
Explanation of the gap analysis
Format your outline according to APA guidelines.
Please see attached strategic plan. Please attach appropriate references to reference page.
Include elements of SWOT as needed. This is a final outline for this class. SWOT analysis stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
Write a 575-to-850-word research project in which you outline the various processes of jails, prisons, probation, parole, juvenile and community corrections. In your research paper, be sure to address the following as it pertains to correctional systems:
• Evaluate past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of institutional and community-based corrections.
• Examine correctional organization and administration functions that reflect operations and fiscal demands.
• Assess the Security, technology, management, and control functions within correctional environments.
• Explain the various Educational and treatment programs used in rehabilitation efforts for institutional and community corrections.
Write a 1,400- to 2,100-word paper in which you assess criminal justice from a global perspective. In your paper be sure to analyze the following:
o Assess the impact of globalization on the U.S. criminal justice system.
o Compare and contrast international criminal justice systems (Civil Law, Common law, and Islamic Law and Socialist Law traditions).
o Discuss the impact that cybercrime and technology have had on worldwide justice systems.
o Differentiate the policing systems on a worldwide scale.
o Identify major crimes and criminal issues that have a global impact on justice systems and processes (e.g., Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Darfur, Congo, etc.).
Aim: to make students aware of the lack of understanding of the principles controlling
transfer and persistence of trace evidence (non-DNA).
You need to write a short essay the development of the understanding of transfer and
persistence and you need to have your essay reviewed by one of your team members.
Note that a scientific essay has a flowing structure from introducing the topic, (historical
context, e.g. Locard and others), discussing the state of the art (e.g. current literature) and
personal opinion about the future, e.g. what research project could be done to improve
knowledge on transfer and persistence.
Structure of essay (you need to use exactly this structure):
2. Your student number
3. Student number of reviewer
4. Paragraph 1 Definition of transfer and persistence and historical and recent literature
references (mark 3/10)
5. Paragraph 2 Mathematical and statistical approaches in the literature (mark 4/10)
6. Paragraph 3 Future directions for research, e.g. an Honours project on a transfer and
persistence project (mark 3/10)
7. Literature references (at least 5 real peer reviewed references and not just only webpages).
Marking rubric essay
1. Paragraph: 1 mark between 0 and 3, depending on quality of explanation transfer and
persistence and historical and recent literature references
2. Paragraph: 2 mark between 0 and 4, depending on quality of a description Mathematical and
statistical approaches in the literature.
3. Paragraph: 3 mark between 0 and 3, depending on quality of idea of a project.
4. No or poor title: max minus 2 points
You will revise the strategic plan you created in Unit 4 and prepare a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for 3 of the public-private partner relationships you proposed.
Revise the Unit 4 Private/Public Partnership Strategic Plan based on your instructor’s feedback.
Add a component related to how your community will address public relations and public education toward resilience.
Tips for Effectively Communicating with the Whole Community in Disasters
DHS: National Emergency Communications Plan
Create MOUs that outline the formal agreements between 3 each of your community’s public and private entities.
You can use this sample MOU template, or you can design your own using any format as long as the scope is covered regarding the agreement between the public jurisdiction and private-sector entity. Ensure that the document explains fully what the community will gain under what circumstances, and what the partner organization should expect to contribute and receive under what circumstances.
Your agreement document should be added as an addendum to the end of your proposal prior to your reference page. Be sure to reference all of your sources using APA style.
Writing Guide for a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
The Department of Homeland Security (n.d.) provides a detailed step-by-step guide for writing and entering into as valid memorandum of understanding between two or more organizations. The sample MOU is based on an agreement between DHS and SAFECOM in regards to interoperability communications.
Please submit your assignment.