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A longer paper project of 4500-5000 words (15-20pp.; Times New Roman,
12pt., double-spaced). Develop the cases from your short papers into the
final paper project.
find out more what British people and other European people initiated to China.
For example, language, science and technology, clothes, food, and other goods.
China’s Interaction with the Industrialized West
There is a rich history that can be deducted in the modernization of China. Notably, modernization of China can be attributed to the interaction that the country had with other different countries around the world at certain periods in history. One of such notable interaction that China had includes that between China and Great Britain in the late 18th Century. In the 18th Century and specifically between the year 1736 and 1795, Great Britain was under the monarchy system under the rule of the famous King George III. This was the period when most of the European countries were going through the Enlightenment period that was characterized by numerous scientific innovation and also industrial revolution at the same time. It can be stated that modernization in China was facilitated by its interaction with the western countries mainly Great Britain.
Europe was also committed to sharing some of the innovations and modernizations it had with the rest of the world in the name of the process of civilization. However, China had instituted some of the institutions that denied it an opportunity to benefit from the modernization as it was happening in the rest of the countries around the world. One of such institutions includes the canton system, whose primary objective was to regulate trade between China and the western countries. In the period that China was under the rule of King George III, China was under the renowned reign Qianlong Reign. It is the Qing dynasty that was known for effecting the canton system. On the realization of the barring effect of the Canton system to the Chinese market, King George had to look for ways to ensure that the region is open to the international trade. This would open up China to the rest of the world enabling it to benefit from the industrial revolution and the enlightenment period in Europe.
To achieve this, King George III selected and sent an envoy to China that would negotiate with the Qing court on how to make the Chinese market to accessible for trade from merchants from Europe and the rest of the world. The envoy was headed by George Macartney and is documented to have had up to 700 people from Britain (Berg, 2006). The envoy hoped that the Qing dynasty would hear them out and re-evaluate the canton system that could be not friendly with regard to offering the flexibility of doing business with the western countries. Fortunately, the Qing court considered accepting the suggestion from King George envoy led by Macartney. One of the things that they Qing court did was to start the construction of ports to facilitate docking of ships from the western countries. In this regard, a major port was constructed in a place known as the Zhoushan to facilitate trade between China and Great Britain.
Further, the Qing court also allowed the construction of an embassy for Great Britain in Beijing. This would create an avenue to facilitate the mobility of goods and services between China and Great Britain and the rest of the European countries. To achieve all of these aspects, the Qing court suspended the Canton system that had placed trade barrier and limitation to the free flow of goods and services to and from China (Van Dyke, 2005) . Little is mentioned of the challenge that the envoy encountered in the Qing dynasty. One of the biggest challenges that the envoy encountered in China included culture crash. Great Britain and China are countries in two distinct geographic locations in Europe and in Asia with very different cultures. There was a controversy in the greeting that was identified as kowtow in which the guest had to kneel down before a person until he or she touches the ground with his or her forehead and do it repeatedly for up to three times. To Britons, this was a greeting mainly from the slaves but in China, they expected the guests to perform the same. Kowtow is one of the many elements of culture crash that the Britain envoy encountered in China.
Given these points, it is clear that China experienced modernization when it finally considered opening up to business with the rest of the world and especially doing trade with the European countries. Initially, China had instituted what was commonly identified as the canton system, which was a set of laws that regulated trade with the western countries. When King George III sent his envoy to China, one of the achievements of the envoy was getting the Qui court to suspend the canton system. Additionally, the Qui court also directed for the construction of ports that would facilitate docking of ships to and from the western countries. The industrial revolution that was happening in the European countries led to the manufacturing of a wide range of industrial products. Therefore, it can be stated that modernization in China was facilitated by the abolishment of the canton system that limited trade between China and the western countries.
Berg, M. (2006). Britain, industry and perceptions of China: Matthew Boulton,‘useful knowledge’ and the Macartney Embassy to China 1792–94. Journal of Global History, 1 (2), 269-288.
Van Dyke, P. A. (2005). The Canton trade: Life and enterprise on the China coast, 1700-1845 (Vol. 1). Hong Kong University Press.