COUN 502 Discussion 2-Reply 1

The below assignment has been written by another student. Please read it very carefully and reply to it by providing at least 250 meaningful words, APA format, at least one in-text cite and from at least one academic resource. Textbook-Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Thanks (Melissa) The study of neurobiology is important in helping us understand how the brain works and attributes to our behaviors. In studying neurobiology, we learn about a multiplicity of neurological disorders that affect development. Two of these disorders are Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). ADHD is a condition that generally presents itself in early childhood, and can continue into adulthood. It is characterized by a strong inability to focus on tasks and inattention, as well as hyperactivity and a lack of impulse control (CHADD, 2016). This condition can present as mild, moderate or severe, and the symptoms may lessen or change with age (CHADD, 2016). Left undiagnosed, ADHD can lead to a failure to thrive in school, stress on the family, depression, relationship problems, and more (CHADD, 2016). ADHD typically has three ways in which it presents itself: predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of the two. Characteristics of each presentation are as follows. Predominantly inattentive: trouble maintaining attention, becomes distracted easily, forgetful, appears to not listen, unorganized, has trouble following directions, etc. Hyperactive-Impulsive: fidgets or can’t sit still, has trouble remaining seated, excessively runs or climbs, seems to be driven by a motor, has trouble participating in quiet activities, talks excessively, etc. Combination: exhibits qualities from both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive presentations OCD is thought to be a genetic condition that is linked to neurological abnormalities in the structure and function of the brain (Packer, 2009). This disorder is comprised of obsessions and compulsions that affect a person’s daily life. Packer defines obsessions as “recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images experienced as unwanted, intrusive, and inappropriate” (2009). These obsessions cause feelings of anxiety and are more than merely excessive worries about life’s challenges. Some common obsessive behaviors involve being overly concerned about germs, excessive doubting, and a need for symmetry and order (Packer, 2009). Compulsions are defined as “repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly” (Packer, 2009). Some common compulsions include excessive hygiene, counting, checking and rechecking, hoarding, seeking reassurance, perfectionism,and ordering or arranging things (Packer, 2009). Both ADHD and OCD can potentially affect a person’s ability to properly function in daily life, especially if left untreated. A relatively new field of study is that of neurobiology and spirituality, sometimes referred to as neurotheology. Scientists have studied brain images of those who routinely participate in meditation or prayer, and have discovered that these processes directly effect certain brain activities which, in turn, promotes relaxation (Nidamboor, 2013). Furthermore, it has been found that spirituality plays a significant role in achieving optimal mental health (Mohandas, 2008).

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