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The below assignment has been written by another student. Please read it very carefully and reply to it by providing at least 250 meaningful words, APA format, at least one in-text cite and from at least one academic resource and biblical source. Textbook-Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Thanks (Teresa)
Trauma, Development, and Spirituality
According to Santiago et al (cited in Wang & Daro 1998) “Experiences that meet the DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 traumatic events criterion range from direct exposure, such as motor vehicle accidents, mudslides, and terrorist attacks, to witnessing a traumatic event”, adding school shootings, physical and emotional abuse have an effect (pp.233-241). In addition; “Intentional traumas are those that involve the deliberate infliction of harm, and those exposed to intentional traumatic events, had worse health outcomes than those who experienced harm that was inadvertent (Santiago, et al, 2013, pp 233-241) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998)
Affecting Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect Factors
What affects “Individual cases”, there are numerous factors, that are as followed: 1). “Child’s age and their developmental status when the abuse or neglect occurs.” 2). “type of abuse (Physical, neglect, sexual; etc.” 3). “The frequency, duration, and severity of abuse.” 4).” The relationship between the victim and his or her abuser” (English et al, 2005; Chalk, Gibbons & Scarupa, 2002, n.p); (cited in Wang & Daro 1998
It is still today, in the 21st Century not understood, how there are some young children that have lifelong reoccurring vivid recall of an incident and some children are strong and resilient and or understand how to cope with the experience (Fraser & Terzian, 2005, n.p) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998). In addition; “Resilience factors consist of “Individual characteristics: like self-esteem, and independence; Child’s social environment and the family’s access to safe schools and adequate health care, are other protective and promotive factors”
Brain Development Impairments
“Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development” (DeBellis & Thomas, 2003, n.p) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998 “These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities” (Watts-English, Fortson, Gibler, Hooper & DeBellis, 2006, n.p) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998
According to Silverman; Reinhertz & Giaconia, (1996) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998) Stipulates “One long-term study; as many as 80 percent of young adults who had been abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21” (n.p). In addition, “these young adults, exhibited many problems, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts” (Silverman; Reinhertz & Giaconia, 1996, n.p,) (cited in Wang & Daro 1998) “Other psychological and emotional conditions associated with abuse and neglect (Trauma); include panic disorders, dissociated disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, anger, post-traumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder “(Teicher,2000; DeBellis & Thomas, 2003; Springer, Sheridan, Kuo & Carnes, 2007, n.p) ( cited in Wang & Daro 1998)
According to Brooks (2014) stipulated that “Continuous stressors become traumatic to the child and the stress reaction can produce chemicals vivid memorial of such traumatic events have symptom similar to PTSD” [Presentation}.
According to (ACF, 2004b) says; “An NSCAW Survey of Children 3 to 5 in foster care found these children displayed clinical or borderline levels of behavioral problems at a rate of more than twice that of the general population”. In addition; “As a traumatized child(s) transitions through the lifespan stages; It is more likely that the following symptoms and or DSM-IV Criteria’s are met, such as the following: “Difficulty in the adolescent years “; “Juvenile delinquency and adults Criminality”; “Abusive behaviors” (Prevent Child Abuse New York, 2003, n.p).
The traumatic consequences that can cause developmental delays have had different studies and research conducted. It has been analyzed to the seriousness of possible causes. Effects differ in the traumatic circumstances, effect on children, and adolescents and or even adults individually. Particular consequences are considered a short phase or over a long term for these individuals. Symptoms are considered on a clinical spectrum from mild, to acute. It affects the physical, psychological, behavioral and or all the factors. Trauma doesn’t just affect the individuals, it affects the family system and needs further research to its effects on standards, laws and it is a worldwide problem, not just in the United States.
Spirituality and Trauma
A victim of trauma can find a way spirituality to understand their recalls of abuse and fear, to live a productive life beyond past experiences.
According to Roehlkepartain (2006) says “It’s a personal religion, and a God or spirit, which may emerge as a sense of interconnection or compassion, a revelatory insight, a quest for meaning, a sacred other” (p 164) In Addition to; Achieving adaptation; pursue a life of meaning and purpose, commitment and service, sustain their relationships to creation, the sacred, their fellow human beings and respond adaptively to challenges (Roehlkepartain, 2006, p 147) The importance of understanding “spiritual and religious pathology”; “Pathologically; there are forms of functioning that are supportive, mature, organized, purposeful, and meaningful that are destructive and needlessly promote excessive levels of anxiety, despair, guilt, and or violence” (Roehlkepartain, 2006, p147). (James 1:27, King James Version) says: “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the father less and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world”.
Trauma and Spiritual Emergencies
“Children’s experiences reflect natural emergence and not necessarily an emergency” (Roehlkepartain, 2006, p 167). It is important to understand childhood recall. According to Roehlkepartain, (2006) stipulated experiences as, “that nearly 85 percent of young adults reported that their first occurrence was before the age of 18, with 12 percent indicating their first occurrence prior to 6 years old, 27 percent between 6 to 12, and 46 percent between 12 and less than 18 years old (p. 167). In Addition, 39 percent indicated that they had a moment of unitive connection and of those, 70 percent “occurred at least once in childhood or youth” (Roehlkepartain, 2006, p 167). “This I recall to my mind; therefore, have I hope (Lamentations 3:21, KJV).