COUN 502 Discussion 5-Reply 1

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The below assignment has been written by another student. Please read it very carefully and reply to it by providing at least 250 meaningful words, APA format, at least one in-text cite and from at least one academic resource and biblical source. Textbook-Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Thanks (Antonia) The growth in the brain in the adolescent period is the most dramatic and important during the lifespan (Broderick &Blewitt, 2015). During this growth spurt, adolescents have a sensitivity to stress which may include conflict with parents, moodiness, and risky behavior. Risky behaviors are behaviors that constitute a departure from socially accepted norms or behaviors that pose a threat to the well-being of individuals or groups (Broderick and Blewitt, 2015). Some of these thrill seeking behaviors include drinking and drug use, sexual behavior, truancy, and vandalism. Substance experimentation during adolescence elevates the risk of persistent substance use and substance use disorders in later life stages for all types of drugs (Palmer et al., 2009; Bauman and Phongsavan, 1999; Brook et al., 1999; Kapusta et al., 2007; Riggs et al., 2007; Winters et al., 2008). Repeated drug abuse and/or stress during this stage increase the risk of addiction and elevate activator innate immune signaling in the brain. While the developing brain may be more resilient to neurotoxic effects, exposure to alcohol and drugs during a period of critical neurological development may interrupt the natural course of brain maturation and key processes of brain development (Squeglia et al., 2009). Persistent use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse result in changes to neurobiology that culminate in a loss of attention, poor decision making, increased impulsivity, and anxious urgency that promotes the progressive loss of behavioral control over drug use (Crews & Vetreno, 2011). For decades in adolescent research, religion has been viewed primarily as a control or prevention mechanism that reduces the odds for young people’s engagement in a range of high-risk behaviors (Benson, Donahue, &Erickson, 1989; Donahue & Benson, 1995). Religious and spiritual orientation is considered a protective factor for risky behaviors of adolescence. Proverbs 22:6 (KJV)Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it. This passage speaks to the influence parents have on their children. Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem among teens, N.C. Attorney General Roy Cooper said Wednesday during a visit with students at Winston/Salem/Forsyth County Schools’ Career Center (Herron, 2016). Cooper reported that prescription drug use has been an issue for high school for years and is now moving to middle school. Prescription drugs are the second most abused drugs among young people ages 12-17 after marijuana. Nearly half of the 14 counties in the Triad and Northwest NC are on the Top 20 list for deaths related to substance abuse statewide, a nonprofit agency says (Craver, 2015). The ranking is based on deaths from prescription drugs, alcohol and illegal drugs, though prescription drugs are the focus of the partnership’s report. Teens and young adults, in particular, are using and abusing painkillers such as hydrocodone, with the brand names of Vicodin, OxyContin, and Valium, law enforcers said. “It’s the No. 1 drug problem in North Carolina right now”, Sheriff David Grice of Davidson County said in a June 2012 article in the Winston Salem Journal (Craver, 2015). In conclusion, the adolescent brain is in a “growth spurt” which makes the adolescence period vulnerable to stress sensitivity and as a result engagement in risky behaviors. One of the risky behaviors identified is drug use. SAMHSA (2014) indicated that about 15 million people aged 12 or older used prescription drugs non-medically in the past year, and 6.5 million did so in the past month.This issue is a growing national problem in the United States. Current research questions if adolescents can be addicted due to the impact drugs and/or alcohol have on the maturation of the brain.

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