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create a report in which you discuss effects of human actions on the environment related to the water bottle life cycle. The calculations you make on the worksheet will give you some ideas and figures to supplement your discussion specific to transportation; other resources will offer different angles of approach for your analysis. You may include charts, diagrams or other graphics to enhance your materials, but be sure to write in your own words and cite sources as necessary.
In your report:
1. Describe the cycles of four chemicals essential to life on earth: water, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Be sure to use appropriate key terms and explain them in your own words. Consider:
1. How do the cycles normally function?
2. How does the production cycle of water bottles change each of the cycles?
2. Explain biodiversity and how it is affected by human transportation (that is, transportation-related systems such as trucking and manufacturing) as detailed in the worksheet and other resources.
3. Explain the logisitic population-growth model. How do humans live in relation to this model? How does this affect the environment?
4. Select four different variations from the normal processes identified in parts 1, 2 and 3 above. Offer at least one possible restorative measure for each variation, explaining how each measure could mitigate negative effects on the processes you described.
5. Analyze each restorative measure critically by addressing the following questions:
1. What benefits would each measure have?
2. What drawbacks might result from adopting a given intervention?
3. What kinds of complications could make the adoption difficult?
6. Identify and discuss at least three different ethical issues that face humans (as consumers, citizens, businesses or governments) due to human population growth and/or consumption of resources. Consider the information and ideas you have developed in researching the topics above, as well as the results of the Water Bottle Tracking Worksheet. I have add the worksheet
7. YOU MUST USE THE FOLLOWING WEB SITE TO START REPORT AND ADD FROM THERE Citing must be in APA format
YOU MUST HAVE ALL OF THE BELOW REQUIRED POINTS IN THE REPORT
Report correctly explains models of population growth
Report accurately explains functioning of the four biogeochemical cycles
Report analyzes environmental solutions critically, explaining benefits and problems or difficulties
Report identifies and explains four likely environmental impacts of the water bottle life cycle
Report identifies and explains at least one intervention for each environmental impact
Report analyzes human population growth in terms of the appropriate model
Report discusses three different possible ethical problems posed by human population growth and/or overconsumption and analyzes them from multiple perspectives
Report is clear and easy to follow
Writing is clear, with no major errors
Any sources of information are cited using APA format, with no major errors
In this worksheet, you will calculate the amount of carbon dioxide, or “carbon footprint,” emitted by just one stage of a plastic water bottle’s life cycle: transportation. You will also perform some other calculations related to bottled water consumption in the United States. Use the answers you calculate to inform your report’s discussion of the environmental impact of using bottled water.
For this worksheet, we will consider the best-selling product of the Warsaw Springs Bottling Company of Warsaw Springs, Maine: the ½-liter (.5 L) spring water bottle.
Perform the following calculations to identify roughly how much carbon dioxide is emitted from transporting the product. For each problem below:
- Include the equations or formulas you used.
- Explain, in words or with mathematical steps, how you arrived at your answers. You do not have to submit sketches, but you may find that drawing parts of the problem on scratch paper can help you understand the problem.
- Include all relevant units (such as miles or cubic inches) in your final answers.
- Round answers to one decimal place unless indicated otherwise.
- Warsaw Springs bottled water is shipped away from the plant by truck, which will travel an average speed of 65 miles per hour.
- How many hours will it take the truck to drive from the bottling plant to the BigMart store located 121 miles away in Manchester, New Hampshire?
|Speed = 65 mph
Distance = 121 miles
Time = Distance/speed =1.86 hrs
- Convert your answer above to minutes. Round to the whole minute.
Min=60 *1.86 =112 minutes
- The carbon footprint from transporting the water depends in part on the number of products that can be transported at one time. The water bottles are shipped upright in shrink-wrapped cases, 24 to a case.
|Case Dimensions||Figure 1: Case of water.
Note: Diagram not to scale.
|length|| 15.1 in.
|width|| 8.3 in.
Using the numbers in the table above, what is the area of the base of one case? What is its perimeter? Its volume?
Note: Area units can be expressed as square inches (in2); volume units can be expressed as cubic inches (in3).
|Area of the base of one case = L*W = 15.1 * 8.3 = 125.33 in2
Perimeter of the base = 2*(L+W) = 2*(15.1+8.3) = 46.8 in
Volume of the case = L*W*H = 15.1*8.3*10.2 = 1278.37 in3
- The cases are then placed upright in a truck, with as many as will fit in the truck lined up and stacked. The diagram below shows one case loaded in the truck. Every case is loaded in the same orientation as the one in the diagram.
|Trailer Interior Dimensions||Figure 2: Tractor-trailer with trailer section. Note that the length of the case is aligned with the length of the truck.|
- What is the length of the longest case array that could fit on the truck with the long side of each case set along the length of the truck, as in the diagram? The width? The height? Provide your answer in feet, rounded to one decimal place.
|Number of cases along length=truck length/case length=12*47/15.1=37.35≈37 cases
Length of longest case array along length of truck=37*15.1/12=46.6 ft
Number of cases along width=truck width/case width=12*8.5/8.3=12.28≈12 cases
Length of longest case array along width of truck=12*8.3/12=8.3 ft
Number of cases along height=truck height/case height=12*9/10.2=10.58≈10 cases
Length of longest case array along height of truck=10*10.2/12=8.5 ft
- What is the volume of the case array loaded into the truck?
|Volume of case array
=Total number of cases * Volume of each case
- How many whole cases can be loaded in the truck in this manner? How many bottles?
|Number of whole cases loaded = 37*12*10 = 4440
Total number of bottles = number of cases * bottles/case = 4440*24 = 1065400
- How much leftover space is there in the truck?
Hint: Consider the measurements of cases, not bottle contents.
|Leftover space in truck
= Volume of truck – Total volume of cases
- Assuming that the full truck emits 184.6 kilograms of carbon dioxide per 100 miles, calculate how much carbon dioxide the vehicle emits on this trip.
|CO2 emitted on this trip=Trip distance*CO2/mile=121*184.6/100=223.4kg
- Based on your answers to the questions above, how many kilograms of carbon dioxide are emitted per bottle of water on this trip? What is that in pounds? Show your answers to six decimal places.
Note: 1 pound = 0.45 kilogram
|CO2/bottle on this trip=Total CO2/Total bottles =223.37/106560=0.00209619 kg
- Assume that a total of 9.1 billion gallons of bottled water was consumed in the United States last year. (The real number is probably higher.) If all of this water was in the form of ½-liter bottles that traveled the same distance as the Warsaw Springs bottles in our example, how much carbon dioxide, in pounds, was emitted into the atmosphere during transportation of the final product?
Note: 1 billion = 1,000,000,000
1 gallon = 3.79 liters
|Number of bottles=Total water consumed/water per bottle
CO2 emitted = Number of bottles*CO2/bottle=68978000000*0.004658=321299524 pounds
- Some water travels much farther than our Warsaw Springs example. The bottles that contain FIJI® water are produced in China before being shipped to Fiji to be filled with water. FIJI water that will be sold in the United States must then be shipped to the United States as well. It is about 8,700 kilometers from China to Fiji and another 8,000 kilometers from Fiji to San Francisco. How far, in miles, do FIJI water bottles travel before they arrive in the United States?
Note: 1 mile = 1.6 kilometers
|Water bottles travel distance=8700+8000=16700 km=16700/1.6= 10437.5 miles|
- Assume that the United States consumes 2.6 billion cases of bottled water per year. Assume that those cases are all Warsaw Springs cases (see problem 2 for case information).
Figure 3: A line of water bottle cases circles the Earth.
- Imagine Warsaw Springs cases lined up end-to-end. Let that line extend all the way around the earth. The circumference of the Earth is 24,901 miles. How many whole cases would that be?
Hint: Convert the Earth’s circumference to inches first.
|Number of cases=Earth’s circumference/case length= 24901*63360/15.1 = 104485255
- One line of cases around the Earth would not use all the 2.6 billion (2,600,000,000) cases. How many times could you circle the Earth with all these cases? Round to two decimal places.
|Number of times we can circle the earth = Total cases/cases per circle
- Based on your answer to question 8b, what would be the length in whole inches of this line of cases? How much ground area (in square inches) would all of these cases take? What would be the volume (of the cases, not the water in the bottles)?
|Length of line of cases=Number of cases*length of each case
=2.6*10^9*15.1= 39260000000 In
Ground area= Number of cases * Bottom area of a case
= 325858000000 In2
Volume of cases=Number of cases*volume of each case
= 3323762000000 In3
- According to the Earth Policy Institute, the amount of energy required to produce, transport and refrigerate bottled water in the United States every year is equivalent to 50 million barrels of oil (50,000,000 Barrel of Oil Equivalents, or BOE).
One BOE could be used to power a one-watt bulb (a theoretical one that won’t burn out) for 1,700,000 hours.
- For how long could a 60-watt bulb remain lit using one BOE?
Hint: This is not a conversion problem.
|One BOE, one watt bulb for 1700000 hours
For One BOE, 60watt bulb=1700000/60= 28333.33 hours
- For how long could the whole 50 million BOEs burn the 60-watt bulb? Convert your answer to whole years.
Note: One year is 8,760 hours.
|For 50 million BOE, 60watt bulb=28333.33*50*10^6/8760=161,719,939 years