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1) Measure the level of cultural awareness in maritime human resources in Cyprus 2) Examine challenges to creating cultural awareness 3) Identify opportunities for enhancing cultural awareness in maritime human resources in Cyprus
Provisional Topic Title: Cultural Awareness in Cyprus Maritime Human Resources.
Research questions are:
- Measure the level of cultural awareness in maritime human resources in Cyprus
- Examine challenges to creating cultural awareness
- Identify opportunities for enhancing cultural awareness in maritime human resources in Cyprus
Brief outline of project.
Cultural awareness is the understanding of the differences between individual’s attitudes, beliefs and values and those of people from other backgrounds or countries. 1) Increase in diversity in workplace and the emphasis for multicultural teams has made cultural awareness an important business tool in every industry. Understanding of cultures of colleagues helps to enhance unity, communication and productivity in the workplace. Maritime industry is one of the largest and most successful export services in Cyprus. The island has the largest crew management centre with more than 130 shipping-related companies conducting their international activities from the country. 2) The influx of workers from different backgrounds in the Island creates the need for cultural awareness. The proposed dissertation will investigate cultural awareness in Cyprus maritime human resources.
Proposal structurally approved by workshop tutor: Yes/No
Aims/objectives of the research followed by research questions:
Technological advancement and globalization have influenced the shipping industry significantly, making it more multifaceted. A ship can be manufactured in the Philippines, owned in Glasgow, registered in Norway, managed from Cyprus, chartered by an American company, crewed by Japanese, carry cargo from England, and involved in pollution in Indian coast. More than 80% of merchant ships operating around the world have a crew with multicultural backgrounds. Most ships have more than eight ethnicities operating onboard. The language and cultural differences among the squad have led to numerous problems on board ships such as miscommunication, misunderstanding and even significant accidents. Grenestedt (2002) observes that several fights and murders have occurred onboard merchant ships due to the cultural insensitivity of crew members. Therefore, it is essential for crew members to have cultural awareness. Cultural awareness is the understanding of the differences between individual’s attitudes, beliefs and values and those of people from other backgrounds or countries.
Culture and communication are interrelated concepts and religion is a vital consideration in promoting effective communication. Different customs, languages, beliefs, and understanding of gestures contribute towards communication lapses which lead to marine accidents and catastrophes. Running a ship efficiently requires a leadership that is culturally aware and sensitive to other cultures. A significant amount of money spent on purchasing modern communication equipment can go to waste if the crew does not use them to communicate effectively. Increase in diversity in the workplace, and the emphasis on multicultural teams has made cultural awareness a critical business tool in every industry. Understanding of cultures of colleagues helps to enhance unity, communication, and productivity in the workplace. Education should be used to solve problems related to multilingual and multicultural crews. However, cultural awareness and education on cultural sensitivity in maritime industry have not been given enough attention. English is the most spoken language in marine industry. There is a need to develop cultural sensitivity in this sector because the ship is not just a workplace but home for the crew. The seafarers can enhance their collaboration and teamwork if they understand each other’s cultures. This understanding will reduce the risks of conflicts and accidents in the sea. It appears the majority of the researchers have focused on cultural differences in the maritime industry. There is a need to evaluate the cultural awareness of the crew in Cyprus marine human resources. The maritime industry is one of the largest and most successful export services in Cyprus. The island has the most significant crew management centre with more than 130 shipping-related companies conducting their international activities from the country (Cyprus Profile, 2017). Cyprus has some of the most advanced ship management services in the world. Improving cultural awareness in Cyprus maritime industry will enhance the productivity of the employees and improve the growth of the sector.
1.2 Aims & Objectives
This dissertation aims to provide insights into the issues of cultural awareness in Cyprus maritime human resources to apply this information in establishing better cross-cultural relationships and communication onboard to reduce conflicts and accidents. The objectives of the study are outlined below:
- To identify the challenges associated with multilingual and multicultural crews in shipping industry
- Measure the level of cultural awareness in maritime human resources in Cyprus
- Examine challenges to creating cultural awareness
- Identify opportunities for enhancing cultural awareness in marine human resources in Cyprus
Brief Literature Review:
This chapter attempts to put the current study into the context of existing published work. It identifies and critically review different sources of information related to cultural awareness among seafarers and Cyprus maritime human resources.
2.2. Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity is when differences in age, ability, race, language, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or religion are manifested within a workplace or community (Ely and Thomas, 2001). Society can be a school, company, region, city or a country. A group is said to be culturally diverse if different groups are represented. With the growth in technology and the interaction of people across the world, cultural diversity has become more significant. The significance of this issue is manifested by the numerous researchers who have addressed it (Ely and Thomas, 2001; Campinha-Bacote, 2002; Banks, 2015). Cultural diversity can have both benefits and drawbacks at the workplace (Banks, 2015). People with different cultural backgrounds have different perceptions and interpretation of information. These differences can bring synergies or conflicts in organizations depending on how they are managed (Banks, 2015). When people have different experiences, they bring different perspectives to problems. The group operates to look at issues from different angles and develop unique solutions (Banks, 2015). However, to harness these advantages, diversity must be treasured and incorporated into the philosophy and practices of the company. Cultural understanding and sensitivity can only be leveraged in a group through patience and commitment. The participants must be open-minded, willing and non-judgment to appreciate the importance of cultural difference (Banks, 2015). Without this dedication, presences of many cultures can weaken a team. Differences in opinions, interpretations, and perceptions of events can lead to miscommunication and misunderstanding. If the problem is not managed, hostilities can arise. Prejudices can develop making people more judgemental.
Well-managed cultural diversity can help a firm to increase its profits. Research has shown that more culturally diverse companies perform well globally than those with lower levels of diversity (Koopmans, 2005). Cultural diversity drives the profitability of a business by helping it to build trust with the diverse target market. Valuing diversity also reduces problems such as absenteeism and turnover. An organization can avoid litigation when employees respect and value each other (Campinha-Bacote, 2002). Cultural awareness also allows a team to go for the best and most talented individual irrespective of their cultural backgrounds (Banks, 2015). Studies have further shown that cultural diversity can be a source of innovation. Multicultural teams bring their knowledge about diverse markets in the design of products that satisfy the target markets. A diverse workforce is better placed to understand different markets (Koopmans, 2005). In today’s globalized world, geographical boundaries are becoming irrelevant. Different societies across the world are in much contact with one another than ever before (Campinha-Bacote, 2002). Therefore, it is vital for employees to be aware of cultural differences and develop culturally sensitive communication skills. Reid, Stadler, and Spencer-Oatey (2009) observe that many organizations ignore the importance of some aspects of intercultural communication such as greeting, gift giving and showing respect.
2.3. Culture in Maritime Human Resources
More than 80% of international business is conducted across oceans and seas. Due to the global nature of the shipping industry, there is a need to pay attention challenges facing human resources from a social dimension (Helmreich, 2001). The diversification and the continuous growth of maritime trade have brought about interconnectivity and interdependence of people. The potential benefits of this interconnection include the exchange of skills, innovations and accelerated growth of the industry. Technology and skills are quickly dispersed, and countries and individuals can take advantage of this interconnection to grow. However, the global interconnection comes with anxiety and concerns over unfamiliarity (Helmreich, 2001). Cultural issues related to ethnicity, race, religion, nationality, and language are shared in maritime business. Maritime organizations must pay attention to issues such as integration, assimilation, and marginalization in such a culturally diverse environment.
The presence of mixed-nationality crew is not new in the industry, but it has gain significance as more shipping companies are consciously composing these teams (Barsan, Surugiu, and Dragomir, 2012). Modern maritime human resources market is characterized by the ability of seafarer from any background or nationality to ask for employment (Progoulaki and Roe, 2011). Additionally, there is a higher tendency to have internationally organized recruitment networks that link shipping crews, training institutions, ship managers, ship owners, and labor supply agencies across the world (Helmreich, 2001). The composition of the team depends on the skills, compatibility of cultures, languages, and many other factors (Barsan, Surugiu, and Dragomir, 2012). The decision brings together seafarers of different nationalities is mainly influenced by factors such as wages and adaptability to work in a culturally diverse environment (Helmreich, 2001). Several studies conducted by the Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC) indicate that seafarers from Republic of Korea and the Russin Federation prefer to work in monoglot and homogeneous crew due to their limitation in speaking English (Kahveci & Sampson, 2003). Kahveci and Sampson (2001) further show that Russians sail in small groups when they do so with other nationalities. Filipino, Indian and Polish seafarers provide the most significant portion of the crew on the most ship. The research further shows that the Filipinos are considered to be culturally compatible and are most preferred to work in shipping companies (Theotokas and Progoulaki, 2007). On the other hand, Filipinos, Poles, and Indians are considered to be sufficiently good in English and can safely mix and work in an English-speaking crew.
2.4. Cultural Awareness
Globalisation of the economy has redefined the operational environment for international companies (Day, 2007). The ability to offer right products and services at the right price and in the right markets is not the sole determinant of success (Barsan, Surugiu, and Dragomir, 2012). Instead, having the right mix of people with the relevant intercultural competence and cultural awareness is a most critical factor for companies working across borders and cultures (Day, 2007). Ignoring cross-cultural expertise and knowledge as an optional skill can be costly to an international organization. This ability is vital for all employees working in a multicultural environment at all levels (Barsan, Surugiu, and Dragomir, 2012). Cultural awareness skill can be developed at both social and professional standards and can help improve performances in assignments across borders and cross-cultural negotiations. Lack of cultural awareness can lead to miscommunication and conflicts with colleagues, acquaintances, clients, and neighbors (Day, 2007). Intercultural competence is arguably the essential asset for international employees working and living abroad. Multinational companies planning to merge or acquire individuals or enterprises elsewhere should prioritize cultural awareness of their employees. The firms can hold intercultural training seminars and programmes to equip the staff with skills and strategies of working across cultures (Day, 2007). Country-specific cross-cultural plans should be provided to employees moving to new countries (Day, 2007). Participation in intercultural training programmes improves the cultural awareness of the employees and helps them to avoid the risk of miscommunication.
2.5. Gap in Literature
A lot of studies have been conducted on the issue of cultural awareness in the past two decades due to globalization. The majority of researchers have focused on cultural awareness in healthcare and school environment (Campinha-Bacote, 2002; Black and Duhon, 2006; Krainovich-Miller et al., 2008; Tomalin and Stempleski, 2013). These studies have shown that culture plays an essential role in influencing the performance of teachers and healthcare workers in their places of work (Krainovich-Miller et al., 2008; Tomalin and Stempleski, 2013). Little research has been conducted to evaluate how culture and cultural awareness influence workers in maritime industry (Horck, 2008; Progoulaki, M. and Roe, M., 2011). The few researchers who have addressed the problem of culture in the marine workforce have focused on countries such as Greece and England (Theotokas and Progoulaki, 2007; Fafaliou, Lekakou and Theotokas, 2006; Bocanegra-Valle, 2010). Little attention has been given to the Cyprus maritime industry despite its growing importance in the world sea trade. The current study will seek to address this gap in the literature by evaluating the cultural awareness of the Cyprus maritime human resources.
This chapter outlines the methodological procedure taken to investigate the cultural awareness of Cyprus maritime human resources. The section serves as a guide from which the researcher will determine the actions to take to achieve the overall objective of this study. The chapter is divided into sub-topics that explain the research design, sampling and the data collection and analysis methods.
3.2. Research Design
There two main research designs are qualitative and quantitative. The two models can be combined in a single research to form mixed methods. Quantitative research approach places more emphasis on measurement of responses using numerical or statistical methods (Creswell, Plano Clark, Gutmann and Hanson, 2003). On the other hand, qualitative research focuses on explaining a social phenomenon using human perceptions and attitudes. In this approach, the researcher is interested in the point of view of the participants towards a given research question (Creswell, Plano Clark, Gutmann and Hanson, 2003). A quantitative research design is adopted in this study. This plan focuses on using numerical data to quantify research phenomena. It attempts to evaluate the extent to which an event under investigation aligns or deviate from the norm. The quantitative design will be employed to measure the level of cultural awareness among the Cyprus maritime human resources. The quantitative design is deployed through the use of Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS) developed by Rew et al. (2003). This tool quantifies the attitudes of participants on a scale of 1 to 7. The average of the responses will be obtained to identify the general views of the participants towards a research question.
The population is the aggregate subjects that are of interest in the research (Babbie and Rubin, 2008). In this case, the community of interest is the Cyprus maritime human resources. The target population will be the employees working in various shipping companies in Cyprus. However, this population is enormous, and it will be cumbersome, costly and time-consuming to administer the questionnaires to the thousands of workers in the industry. Consequently, a sample of the population will be adopted. Quantitative research takes probability sampling techniques typically to draw a random and a representative sample. In this study, a random sample of 100 employees working in a shipping company in Cyprus will be selected.
3.4. Data Collection and Analysis
Data collection will be conducted using both primary and secondary sources. Primary data will be collected using questionnaires administered to employees working for a shipping company in Cyprus. Secondary data is obtained from books, questionnaires and internet sources. The data collected from different sources will be integrated to describe the research phenomenon as accurately as possible. A quantitative survey is developed from the cultural awareness scale by Rew et al. (2003). Rew and colleagues (2003) developed the cultural awareness scale (CAS) for measuring the competence of employees to tolerate differences. The range has been designed based on elements of cultural competence such as cultural sensitivity, cultural awareness, artistic skills and cultural knowledge. Cultural awareness is the understanding of how a person’s cultural background influences their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours. Cultural sensitivity is the identification of differences in beliefs and respecting them. The development of cultural awareness and competence takes time and requires intensive knowledge of other cultures. One should also develop skills to cooperate and interact with other people from different cultural backgrounds or those speaking different languages. Cultural awareness calls for behavioural flexibility at the workplace. The CAS is made of 36 items that measure the cultural knowledge of the participants. For this study, the number of items in the questionnaire is reduced to 30. The omitted six questions are only applicable in a healthcare setting. This scale provides a real technique in the first step of developing cultural awareness at a workplace. This level adopts a similar approach to the Purnell Model of Cultural Competence and the Pathways Model.
Hadziabdic et al. (2016) tested this model using 72 undergraduate and graduate nursing students from the United States. The researchers found a Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.91 for the overall test and content validity index of 0.88. Krainovich-Miller et al. (2008) show that the scale makes use of a Likert scale that ranges from 1 to 6 to measure the level of agreement to the given statements. Option 1 indicates “strongly disagree,” option 4 means “no opinion” and seven indicate “strongly agree.” The CAS has five main subscales: general education; cognitive awareness, research issues, comfort/ behaviour, and practice. The data collected using this questionnaire will be analysed quantitatively using tools such as Excel and SPSS. The findings will be presented in the form of tables and charts for ease of interpretation and analysis.
Resources you need including access to primary and secondary data
The proposed research will make use of both primary and secondary research methods. Primary sources are the first-hand records of the events as accounted by the author or the eyewitness. They include interviews, letters, unanalysed statistical data, survey results, and official documents. The primary sources contain unprocessed data and information such as immediate impressions or original work. On the other hand, secondary sources are syntheses, evaluations, and analyses of the primary data. The current research uses both the primary and secondary data in a combination. The secondary sources in this study will include brochures, books, journals, magazines, newspapers and electronic media such as the World Wide Web and the Internet. These sources will be obtained from the university library and other from internet searches. Internet searches will be done from Google and accessible databases such as Google Scholar, ProQuest, Emerald, and Scopus. The resources will be obtained using keywords such as “cultural awareness”, and “Cyprus maritime human resources.” The available resources will be further sorted based on their relevance and date of publication. More recent books will be favoured to old ones since the concept of cultural awareness has evolved tremendously over the past few years. Primary sources will be obtained through observation and questionnaires. Inspections will be done on how culturally diverse employees interact at the workplace. Surveys will be administered to collect and measure cultural awareness among the employees. Data collected using primary and secondary sources will be combined to make an argument that meets the objective of the study.
Appendix A: Questionnaire
This questionnaire collects information on cultural awareness of Cyprus maritime human resources. Participants are assured that all the information they will provide will be treated with high level of confidentiality and will be used for academic purposes only.
Section A: Cultural Diversity
Please circle as appropriate
- Is cultural diversity an advantage in the development of the Cyprus maritime industry?
- I don’t Know
- Do you know of any cultural diversity (sex, age, ethnicity, races, religions, etc.) in the organization?
- I don’t Know
If yes, please list the different forms of cultural diversity in the organization
- What are the challenges of managing cultural diversity in the group?
- Is your organization doing enough to guarantee integration of different cultures?
- I don’t Know
Section B: Cultural Awareness Assessment
Please use the Likert scale against each statement to indicate your level of agreement.
1= strongly disagree; 2 = Disagree; 3 = moderately disagree; 4 = No opinion; 5= moderately agree; 6 = Agree; 7 = strongly agree
|1||I think my beliefs and attitudes are influence by my culture|
|2||I think my culture influence how I behave at work place|
|3||I often reflect on how culture affects my behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs|
|4||The instructor in my school used case studies and examples that accommodated students from all backgrounds|
|5||The instructors model behaviours that were sensitive to multicultural issues|
|6||I feel that the instructors from the school I studied respected differences in individuals from different cultures|
|7||My courses at the college have assisted me to be more comfortable working with people from different cultures|
|8||I believe some aspects of the school I attended may alienate students from some cultural backgrounds|
|9||In my classes, the instructor sometimes behaved in a way that made some students from specific cultural backgrounds feel excluded|
|10||I have adequately trained on multicultural issues|
|11||I have attended training on cultural awareness before|
|12||The employer provides opportunities for activities related to cultural issues|
|13||My understanding of multicultural issues has increased since I started working here|
|14||My experiences in college have helped me become more knowledgeable about cultural differences|
|15||I believe the decisions of the crew is influenced by their own cultural beliefs|
|16||I think the crew’s cultural values influence their behaviours at work|
|17||I think it is the responsibility of my supervisor to accommodate workers of diverse cultures|
|18||I think the cultural beliefs of my supervisors influence their decisions|
|20||The company researches to examine the effect of culture on performance|
|21||Employees in this company have conducted several types of research on cultural differences|
|Behaviours/ Comfort with Interactions|
|22||I find it difficult to offer assistance to individuals of particular backgrounds|
|23||I am less patient when dealing with individuals from certain cultural backgrounds|
|24||I feel comfortable working with employees of all ethnic groups|
|25||I feel uncomfortable working with employees from different ethnic backgrounds|
|26||My supervisors call on employees from minority cultural groups when issues related to their team come up in the workplace|
|27||I respect the decisions of my colleagues when they are influenced by their cultures|
|28||I usually go online to learn more about cultures that I do not understand|
|29||I feel comfortable asking my colleagues about cultures I do not understand|
|30||I feel comfortable discussing my culture at workplace|
Babbie, E. and Rubin, A., (2008). Research methods for social work. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Banks, J.A., (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge.
Barsan, E., Surugiu, F. and Dragomir, C., (2012). Factors of human resources competitiveness in maritime transport.
Black, H.T. and Duhon, D.L., (2006). Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), pp.140-144.
Bocanegra-Valle, A., (2010). Global markets, global challenges: the position of Maritime English in today’s shipping industry. English in the European context: The EHEA challenge, pp.151-174.
Byram, M., (2012). Language awareness and (critical) cultural awareness–relationships, comparisons, and contrasts. Language Awareness, 21(1-2), pp.5-13.
Campinha-Bacote, J., (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. Journal of transcultural nursing, 13(3), pp.181-184.
Creswell, J.W., Plano Clark, V.L., Gutmann, M.L. and Hanson, W.E., (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research, 209, p.240.
Cyprus Profile, (2017). Managing the World’s Fleet. [online], [Accessed 27th December 2017], Available at: http://www.cyprusprofile.com/en/sectors/maritime-and-shipping .
Day, R., (2007). Developing the multi-cultural organization: managing diversity or understanding differences?. Industrial and Commercial training, 39(4), pp.214-217.
Ely, R.J., and Thomas, D.A., (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative science quarterly, 46(2), pp.229-273.
Fafaliou, I., Lekakou, M. and Theotokas, I., (2006). Is the European shipping industry aware of corporate social responsibility? The case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies. Marine Policy, 30(4), pp.412-419.
Hadziabdic, E., Safipour, J., Bachrach-Lindström, M. and Hultsjö, S., (2016). The Swedish version of measuring cultural awareness in nursing students: validity and reliability test. BMC Nursing, 15(1), p.25.
Helmreich, R.L., Wilhelm, J.A., Klinect, J.R. and Merritt, A.C., (2001). Culture, error and crew resource management. Improving teamwork in organizations: Applications of resource management training, 305331.
Horck, J., (2008). Cultural and gender diversities affecting the ship/port interface. Maritime education and training efforts to bridge diversity gaps. ISPIC, Bremen, pp.19-21.
Kahveci, E. and Sampson, H., (2001), Findings from the shipboard based study of mixed nationality crews. In Seafarers International Research Centre Symposium, Cardiff.
Koopmans, R., (2005). Contested Citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe, U of Minnesota Press.
Krainovich-Miller, B., Yost, J.M., Norman, R.G., Auerhahn, C., Dobal, M., Rosedale, M., Lowry, M. and Moffa, C., (2008). Measuring cultural awareness of nursing students is the first step toward cultural competency. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), pp.250-258.
Progoulaki, M. and Roe, M., (2011). Dealing with multicultural human resources in a socially responsible manner: a focus on the maritime industry. WMU Journal of marine affairs, 10(1), pp.7-23.
Reid, S., Stadler, S. and Spencer-Oatey, H., (2009). The global people landscaping study: Intercultural effectiveness in global education partnerships.
Rew, L., Becker, H., Cookston, J., Khosropour, S. and Martinez, S., (2003). Measuring cultural awareness in nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(6), pp.249-257.
Sampson, H. and Zhao, M., (2003). Multilingual crews: communication and the operation of ships. World Englishes, 22(1), pp.31-43.
Theotokos, I. and Progoulaki, M., (2007). Cultural diversity, manning strategies and management practices in Greek shipping. Maritime Policy & Management, 34(4), pp.383-403.
Thomas, M., Sampson, H., and Zhao, M., (2003). Finding a balance: companies, seafarers, and family life. Maritime Policy & Management, 30(1), pp.59-76.
Tomalin, B. and Stempleski, S., (2013). Cultural Awareness-Resource Books for Teachers, Oxford University Press.
Tran, T.T., (2007). Cultural sensitivity education: limiting the adverse effects of multicultural crewing in shipping.
|Significance (10%)||Project is original in its approach and will contribute to discipline development. Significance emerges logically from construction of argument in addition to being clearly articulated.||Project is justified and will consolidate understanding in discipline. Significance emerges from construction of argument in addition to being articulated.||Project is relevant and will consolidate student’s understanding of discipline. Significance does not emerge easily in argument but it is evident in addition to being outlined.||Project replicates well-established understanding in discipline. Significance is stated but does not emerge from argument.||Project is too simplistic or disorganised to offer any significance.|
|Aims and objectives (15%)||Aims and objectives are concisely elaborated.
Original and highly relevant hypotheses or research questions are clearly articulated (if appropriate).
|Aims and objectives are well selected. Clearly relevant hypotheses or research questions are determined (if appropriate).||Aims and objectives are identified. Relevant hypotheses or research questions outlined, but could be tighter in their focus (if appropriate).||Aims and objectives are described in broad terms only. Hypotheses and research questions outlined but lacking in clarity or focus (if appropriate).||Aims, objectives or hypotheses/research questions are missing or so poorly written meaning is unclear (if appropriate).|
|Literature review (30%)||Creative and highly organised literature review that outlines the background and context for the research project. Critical reading of the key literature clearly evident throughout.||Well-argued and logical literature review that provides a good overview of the background and context for the research project. Evaluation of key literature quite evident throughout.||Good range of literature examined throughout presentation that is mostly relevant to the project’s background and context. Key studies contrasted but little evidence of evaluation.||Points are supported with relevant literature, but scope of literature review is limited, as is background and context for project. Some key studies not referred to at all or only inferred.||The quality of the literature referred to is questionable or not relevant to the project’s background or context. Few key studies referred to.|
|Methodology (30%)||Creative and highly appropriate methodology is clearly articulated and justified.||Methodology is well argued and justified.||Methodology is explained and appropriate for the project.||An appropriate methodology is broadly outlined, but details are not always clear.||The methodology is either not appropriate for the project or is poorly articulated suggesting deficits in understanding.|
|Referencing (10%)||In-text and reference list consistently adhere to Harvard system throughout. High ranked journal sources which are comprehensive and relevant||In-text and reference list adhere to a single Harvard system with 1 or 2 errors. More than at least 10 references from ranked journals||In-text and reference list adhere to a single Harvard system with 3 or 4 errors. At least 10 references from journals||In-text and reference list adhere to a single Harvard system with 5 or 6 errors.||In-text and reference list do not adhere to the same Author-date system or there are more than 7 errors.|
||Proposal is logical in its construction with no spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors.||Proposal is mostly logical in its construction with 1 or 2 consistent spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors.||Proposal is relatively easy to follow with 3 or 4 consistent spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors.||Proposal has all components, but is not logical in its construction or has a numerous inconsistent spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors.||Aspects of the proposal are missing or so poorly written due to numerous spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors so meaning is unclear.|