Cybercrime against Businesses

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Bureau of Justice Statistics
Special Report
September 2008, NCJ 221943
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
By Ramona R. Rantala
BJS Statistician
Among 7,818 businesses that responded to the National
Computer Security Survey, 67% detected at least one
cybercrime in 2005 (table 1). Nearly 60% detected one or
more types of cyber attack, 11% detected cyber theft, and
24% of the businesses detected other computer security
incidents. Respondents, representing 36 economic industries,
said they detected more than 22 million incidents of
cybercrime in 2005. The vast majority of cybercrimes
(20 million incidents) were other computer security incidents,
primarily spyware, adware, phishing, and spoofing.
There were nearly 1.5 million computer virus infections and
126,000 cyber fraud incidents.
The effects of these crimes were measured in terms of
monetary loss and system downtime. Ninety-one percent of
the businesses providing information sustained one or both
types of loss. The monetary loss for these businesses
totaled $867 million in 2005. Cyber theft accounted for
more than half of the loss ($450 million). Cyber attacks cost
businesses $314 million. System downtime caused by
cyber attacks and other computer security incidents totaled
323,900 hours. Computer viruses accounted for 193,000
hours and other computer security incidents resulted in
more than 100,000 hours of system downtime.
Of the businesses responding to the survey, telecommunications
businesses (82% of these businesses), computer
system design businesses (79%), and manufacturers of
durable goods (75%) had the highest prevalence of cybercrime
in 2005. Utilities, computer system design businesses,
manufacturers of durable goods, and internet service
providers detected the highest number of incidents,
with a total of more than 10.5 million incidents. Administrative
support, finance, and food service businesses incurred
the highest monetary loss with a combined total of
$325 million, more than a third of the total for all businesses.
Forestry, fishing, and hunting (44% of businesses) and
agriculture (51%) had the lowest prevalence of cybercrime
in 2005. Agriculture, rental services, and business and
technical schools incurred the least monetary loss
($3 million).
Table 1. Prevalence of computer security incidents, types
of offenders, and reporting to law enforcement, 2005
Percent of businesses by type of incident
Characteristic All incidents
Cyber
attack
Cyber
theft Other
All businesses
responding 67% 58% 11% 24%
Number of employees
2-24 50% 44% 8% 15%
25-99 59 51 7 17
100-999 70 60 9 24
1,000 or more 82 72 20 36
Industries with the
highest prevalence
of cybercrimea
Telecommunications 82% 74% 17% 32%
Computer
system design 79 72 15 25
Manufacturing, durable
goods 75 68 15 32
Suspected offender
was an—b
Insider 40% 27% 74% 30%
Outsider 71 74 32 72
Incidents were reported—c
Within the business 80% 81% 46% 69%
To another
organization 15 14 9 7
To law enforcement
authorities 15 6 56 12
Note: A total of 7,818 businesses responded to the National Computer
Security Survey. Detail may sum to more than 100% because businesses
could detect multiple types of incidents.
aSee appendix table 3 for all industries.
bPercentages are based on businesses that detected an incident and
provided information on suspected offenders.
c
Percentages are based on businesses that detected an incident and
provided information on reporting incidents to authorities.
Detailed information is available in appendix tables in the online version
of this report on the BJS Website at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/
pdf/cb05.pdf>.
Revised 10/27/08
2 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Insiders (i.e., employees, contractors, or vendors working
for the business) were responsible for the cyber thefts
against nearly 75% of businesses victimized by cyber theft.
Conversely, more than 70% of businesses victimized by
cyber attacks or other computer security incidents said the
suspected offenders were outsiders (i.e., hackers, competitors,
and other non-employees).
Overall, few businesses that detected an incident (15%)
reported cybercrimes to official law enforcement agencies.
More than 50% of victimized businesses reported cyber
thefts to police, while cyber attacks and other computer
security incidents were reported to authorities by 6% and
12% of victimized businesses, respectively.
The National Computer Security Survey provides the
nation’s first large-scale measure of cybercrime
The President’s National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace
directs the Department of Justice to develop better data
about the nature and prevalence of cybercrime and electronic
intrusions.1 Other data collections address cybercrime,
but no large-scale (or nationally representative) survey
collects sufficient information to accurately measure
cybercrime and its consequences or to develop risk factors.
The National Computer Security Survey (NCSS) was
developed by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office
of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics in partnership
with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security,
National Cyber Security Division. The DOJ Computer
Crime and Intellectual Property Section, the Computer
Intrusion Section of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Cyber Division, and the U.S. Secret Service also collaborated
on the project. The survey was also supported by a
wide variety of trade associations and industry groups.
(A complete list is available online at <http://
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/survey/ncss/ncss.htm>.)
The NCSS documents the nature, prevalence, and impact
of cyber intrusions against businesses in the United States.
This report examines three general types of cybercrime:
• Cyber attacks are crimes in which the computer system
is the target. Cyber attacks consist of computer viruses
(including worms and Trojan horses), denial of service
attacks, and electronic vandalism or sabotage.
• Cyber theft comprises crimes in which a computer is
used to steal money or other things of value. Cyber theft
includes embezzlement, fraud, theft of intellectual property,
and theft of personal or financial data.
• Other computer security incidents encompass spyware,
adware, hacking, phishing, spoofing, pinging, port scanning,
and theft of other information, regardless of whether
the breach was successful or damage or losses were
sustained as a result.
More than 8,000 businesses participated in the survey
The National Computer Security Survey sample was a
stratified, random sample of businesses designed to produce
national and industry-level estimates. The sample
was stratified by industry, risk level, and size of business.
Thirty-six industries, as defined by the North American
Industrial Classification System (NAICS), were within the
scope of the survey. (See appendix table 1 for a full list and
definitions of industries, Methodology for details of the
sample design, and page 11 for a glossary.)
To produce national and industry-level estimates a sample
of nearly 36,000 businesses was selected (table 2).
Responses were received from more than 8,000 businesses,
giving an overall response rate of 23%. Response
rates varied by business size, with larger businesses
responding at a higher rate. Response rates also varied by
industry. Response rates were highest for utility businesses
(37%). Telecommunications (16%) had one of the lowest
response rates. (See appendix table 2 for response rates
for all industries). Though response rates were not sufficient
to support national or industry-level estimates, they
were the highest of any survey of this kind.
Table 2. Universe, sample, and response,
by business size and selected industries, 2005
Number of businesses Response
Characteristics Universe Sample Response rate
All businesses 7,278,109 35,596 8,079 23%
Number of employees
2 – 24 6,771,026 11,479 2,056 18%
25 – 99 396,355 5,601 1,236 22
100 – 999 98,585 11,472 2,894 25
1,000 or more 12,143 7,044 1,893 27
Risk levela
Critical Infrastructure 1,680,606 11,694 2,719 23%
High 2,074,041 7,564 1,737 23
Moderate 774,494 5,294 1,184 22
Low 2,748,969 11,044 2,439 22
Industries with highest
response rateb
Utilities 11,850 906 336 37%
Social services 180,376 967 317 33
Health care 577,499 1,444 423 29
Manufacturing, durable
goods 275,319 1,859 503 27
Industries with lowest
response rateb
Internet service providers 23,874 776 135 17%
Telecommunications 26,547 821 134 16
Accommodations 60,944 1,006 143 14
Motion picture and sound
recording 31,902 642 88 14
aRisk level is based on Department of Homeland Security classifications
and industry’s risk of incidents, monetary loss, or downtime.
bSee appendix table 2 for all industries.
______
1
The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, February 2003;
Recommendation A/R 2-1.
Revised 10/27/08
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 3
Computer virus infections were the most prevalent
cybercrime among businesses in 2005
Of the 8,000 respondent businesses representing 36 economic
industries, more than 7,800 used some type of computer
system. Two-thirds of the businesses that used computers
detected at least one computer security incident
(5,081 businesses) in 2005 (table 3). Nearly three-fifths
detected one or more types of cyber attack. A tenth
detected a cyber theft. A quarter of the businesses
detected other computer security incidents, such as spyware
or phishing.
Computer virus infection was the most prevalent type of
cyber attack, detected by 52% of responding businesses.
Nearly 90% of respondents reported that they were able to
stop a virus before it caused an infection (not shown in a
table). Of those businesses able to intercept viruses, 40%
said they were successful in preventing all virus infections.
Cyber fraud was the most common type of cyber theft, having
been detected by 5% of the businesses responding to
the survey (table 3).
Of the businesses detecting theft of intellectual property,
70% indicated at least one incident involving the theft of
trade secrets (table 4). For victims of theft of personal or
financial data, names and dates of birth were taken from
60% of businesses. More than 75% of the businesses
detecting other computer security incidents indicated that
some type of malware (primarily adware) was installed, and
58% of victims discovered spyware or keystroke logging
applications. Slightly more than 50% of the businesses
detecting other computer security incidents were victims of
corporate identity theft in the form of phishing or spoofing.
Prevalence of cybercrime varied by industry and risk level.
In 2005, telecommunications businesses (82% of these
businesses), computer system design businesses (79%),
and manufacturers of durable goods (75%) had the highest
prevalence of cybercrime (appendix table 3.) These three
industries also showed the highest prevalence of cyber
attacks. Finance (33% of businesses) and Internet service
providers (21%) had the highest proportion of businesses
detecting cyber theft. About a third of responding telecommunications
businesses, manufacturers of durable goods,
and architecture and engineering businesses detected
other computer security incidents.
Forestry, fishing, and hunting (44% of businesses) and
agriculture (51%) had the lowest prevalence of cybercrime
in 2005. Forestry, fishing, and hunting also had the lowest
proportion of businesses detecting cyber theft (3%), followed
by warehousing (4%) and social services (5%).
Table 3. Prevalence of computer security incidents among
businesses, by type of incident, 2005
Businesses detecting
incidents
Type of incident All businesses* Number Percent
All incidents 7,636 5,081 67%
Cyber attack 7,626 4,398 58%
Computer virus 7,538 3,937 52
Denial of service 7,517 1,215 16
Vandalism or sabotage 7,500 350 5
Cyber theft 7,561 839 11%
Embezzlement 7,492 251 3
Fraud 7,488 364 5
Theft of intellectual
property 7,492 227 3
Theft of personal or
financial data 7,476 249 3
Other computer security
incidents 7,492 1,792 24%
Note: Number of businesses and detail may sum to more than total
because respondents could answer questions about more than one
type of incident. See appendix table 3 for prevalence, by industry.
*
Based on businesses that indicated whether they detected an incident.
Table 4. Detailed characteristics of selected types of
computer security incidents, by type, 2005
Incident characteristic Percent of businesses
Intellectual property
Trade secrets 70%
Copyrighted material 47
Patented material 14
Trademarks 8
Number of businesses* 198
Personal or financial information
Names or dates of birth 60%
Social security numbers 49
Credit card numbers 34
Account or PIN numbers 27
Debit or ATM card numbers 14
Other 21
Number of businesses* 235
Other computer security incidents
Adware or other malware 77%
Spyware, keystroke logging 58
Phishing or spoofing 53
Scanning, pinging or sniffing 33
Hacking 16
Theft of other information 3
Other 8
Number of businesses* 1,762
Note: Detail may sum to more than 100% because respondents could
provide more than one type.
*Based on businesses that detected an incident and provided detailed
characteristics.
4 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
86% of victimized businesses detected multiple
incidents
The majority of victimized businesses (86%) detected multiple
incidents, with half of these (43%) detecting 10 or
more incidents during the year (table 5). However, the percentage
of businesses detecting multiple incidents varied
by type of incident. For victims of computer viruses, denial
of service attacks, fraud, and other computer security incidents,
the majority of victims detected multiple incidents.
Conversely, fewer than half of the victims of vandalism or
sabotage, embezzlement, theft of intellectual property, or
theft of personal or financial data detected multiple incidents.
91% of businesses detecting cybercrime incurred
losses
The effects of cybercrime were measured in terms of monetary
loss and system downtime. During testing of the survey
instrument, many businesses indicated that they had
no reliable way to estimate the costs associated with system
downtime. The businesses cited various reasons for
difficulty in estimating the cost: employees were able to
work offline, customers could return after systems were
restored, and there was no method for measuring lost
sales. For these reasons, the NCSS asked only for duration
of downtime rather than a dollar loss equivalent.
Ninety-one percent of the businesses that detected incidents
and answered questions on loss sustained one or
both types of loss. Forty-one percent of businesses sustained
both monetary loss and system downtime.
Of the 3,591 businesses that detected incidents and
responded to monetary loss questions, 3,247 (90%)
incurred monetary loss from the computer security incidents
(table 6). The amount of monetary loss depended
on the type of incident. Approximately 68% of the victims
of cyber theft sustained monetary loss of $10,000 or
more. By comparison, 34% of the businesses detecting
cyber attacks and 31% of businesses detecting other computer
security incidents lost more than $10,000. The other
computer security incidents category had the highest proportion
of businesses experiencing some form of cybercrime
but incurring no monetary loss (20%).
Type of loss Percent of businesses*
No loss 9%
Any loss 91%
Monetary loss only 38
Downtime only 12
Both 41
*Based on 4,083 businesses answering at least one question on
monetary loss or downtime.
Table 5. Number of computer security incidents,
by type of incident, 2005
Number of
businesses
Percent of businesses that detected
incidents
Type of incident Total
1
incident
2 – 9
incidents
10 or more
incidents
All incidents 4,439 100% 14 43 43
Cyber attack 3,841 100% 17 53 30
Computer virus 3,404 100% 18 54 28
Denial of service 1,024 100% 26 52 23
Vandalism or
sabotage 264 100% 57 34 8
Cyber theft 681 100% 47 33 20
Embezzlement 185 100% 64 24 12
Fraud 289 100% 39 29 32
Theft of intellectual
property 183 100% 62 34 4
Theft of personal or
financial data 193 100% 51 32 17
Other computer
security incidents 1,400 100% 10 24 66
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
respondents could detect more than one type of incident. Detail may not sum
to 100% due to rounding. See appendix table 4 for number of incidents, by
industry.
Table 6. Monetary loss incurred from computer security
incidents, by type of incident, 2005
Number of
businesses
Percent of businesses with monetary loss
Type of incident Total No loss
$1,000-
$9,000
$10,000-
$99,000
$100,000
or more
All incidents 3,591 100% 10 51 27 13
Cyber attack 3,072 100% 9 57 25 9
Computer virus 2,779 100% 7 60 24 9
Denial of service 697 100% 19 52 23 6
Vandalism or
sabotage 220 100% 11 59 21 9
Cyber theft 542 100% 6 26 38 30
Embezzlement 160 100% 4 19 44 33
Fraud 237 100% 7 32 36 24
Theft of intellectual
property 133 100% 9 17 36 38
Theft of personal
or financial
data 141 100% 11 31 29 29
Other computer
security incidents
1,165 100% 20 49 25 7
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
respondents could detect more than one type of incident. Detail may
not sum to 100% due to rounding. See appendix table 5 for monetary loss,
by industry.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 5
There was no downtime for a tenth of the businesses
detecting cyber attacks or other computer security incidents
(table 7). System downtime lasted between 1 and 24
hours for half of the businesses and more than 24 hours for
a third of businesses detecting these types of incidents.
The duration of system downtime varied by type of incident.
Denial of service attacks noticeably affected the computer
systems of 92% of victims. By comparison, incidents of
vandalism or sabotage shut systems down for 73% of businesses,
and other computer security incidents caused system
downtime for 68% of victimized businesses.
Cybercrime resulted in monetary loss of
$867 million among businesses
responding to the survey
Nearly 4,500 businesses provided information
on 22 million cybercrime incidents in
2005 (table 8). The 3,247 businesses that
incurred monetary loss from cybercrime lost a
total of $867 million. About 2,000 businesses
said their business networks, PCs, or web
sites (or combinations of the three) were
down for a total of 324,000 hours.
Cyber attacks accounted for nearly 1.6 million
incidents, more than $300 million in loss, and
220,000 hours of system downtime. Computer
viruses accounted for about 90% each
of: cyber attack incidents (1.5 million incidents),
monetary loss ($281 million), and system
downtime (193,000 hours).
Cyber theft accounted for less than 1% of all
incidents but more than 50% of the total monetary
loss ($450 million). Theft of intellectual
property had the fewest number of incidents
(607), and the greatest amount of monetary
loss of all types of cyber theft (nearly $160
million). Embezzlement also cost businesses
nearly $160 million. System downtime data
were not collected for cyber theft.
Although 24% of businesses detected other
computer security incidents, these other incidents
accounted for 92% of the total number
of incidents, or 20 million incidents. Other
computer security incidents accounted for
12% of all monetary loss ($103 million) and
32% of system downtime (104,000 hours).
Two-thirds of computer security incidents were
targeted against critical infrastructure businesses
The number of incidents varied by risk level and industry.
Ninety-five percent of victimized scientific research and
development businesses detected multiple incidents
(appendix table 4). By comparison, fewer than 80% of victimized
businesses operating in management of companies;
forestry, fishing, and hunting; or other services
detected more than one incident.
Table 8. Number of computer security incidents and amount of monetary
loss and system downtime, by type of incident, 2005
Number of incidents
Monetary loss
(in thousands) Downtime
Type of incident Total Median Total Median Total Median
All incidents 22,138,250 6 $866,600 $6 323,900hrs 16hrs
Cyber attack 1,582,913 4 $313,900 $5 219,600hrs 12hrs
Computer virus 1,460,242 3 280,700 5 193,000 12
Denial of service 121,652 3 21,100 5 19,200 7
Vandalism or
sabotage 1,019 1 12,200 5 7,300 10
Cyber theft 130,970 2 $450,000 $29
Embezzlement 1,565 1 158,700 50
Fraud 125,510 3 103,100 20
Theft of intellectual
property 607 1 159,400 43
Theft of personal or
financial data 3,288 1 28,800 20
Other computer
security incidents 20,424,367 20 $102,700 $5 104,300hrs 23hrs
Number of businesses 4,433 3,247 2,157
Note: Downtime information was not collected for incidents of cyber theft. For specific types
of incidents, data were suppressed to ensure confidentiality and accuracy. For number of
incidents, six responses were excluded; for monetary loss, six responses were excluded;
and for system downtime, three responses were excluded.
Table 7. System downtime caused by computer security incidents,
by type of incident, 2005
Number of
businesses
Percent of businesses with system downtime
Type of incident Total None
1 – 4
hours
5 – 24
hours
25 hours
or longer
All incidents 2,412 100% 11 20 33 36
Cyber attack 2,150 100% 8 24 36 32
Computer virus 1,952 100% 9 24 37 30
Denial of service 505 100% 8 36 37 19
Vandalism or
sabotage 160 100% 27 24 27 22
Other computer security
incidents 817 100% 32 11 25 32
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because respondents could detect
more than one type of incident. See appendix table 6 for system downtime by industry.
6 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Critical infrastructure businesses detected 13 million incidents
(nearly two-thirds of the total). High risk industries
detected more than 4 million incidents (a fifth of the total).
Utilities, computer system design businesses, durable
goods manufacturers, and internet service providers
detected the most incidents. Businesses in these four
industries detected more than 10.5 million incidents in 2005
(not shown in a table). Forestry, fishing, and hunting; food
service; and rental service businesses detected the lowest
number of incidents. Combined, these 3 industries
detected fewer than 10,000 incidents.
Computer system design businesses (98%) incurred monetary
loss more frequently than any other industry (appendix
table 5). In 2005 computer security incidents resulted in
losses of $10,000 or greater for more than half of the
finance businesses, manufacturers of durable goods, insurance
businesses, and mining businesses.
Critical infrastructure ($288 million) and low-risk businesses
($298 million) sustained the greatest monetary loss
from cybercrime in 2005.
Specifically, administrative support, finance, and food service
businesses incurred the greatest monetary loss with a
combined total of $325 million, more than a third of the total
for all businesses (not shown in a table). Agriculture businesses,
rental services, and business and technical
schools incurred the least monetary loss with a combined
loss of $3 million.
More than half of the manufacturers of durable goods
(56%) sustained system downtime of 25 hours or longer
(appendix table 6). By comparison, more than a third of
legal services and accounting businesses had a total
of 1 to 4 hours of system downtime. Critical infrastructure
industries suffered 152,200 hours of system downtime
(nearly half of the total). Health care businesses reported
the greatest duration of system downtime (34,800 hours).
Accounting; forestry, fishing, and hunting; and warehousing
had the least downtime—a total of 2,500 hours, with fewer
than 1,000 hours each.
Insiders were involved in cyber theft for 74% of
businesses in 2005
A third of the victimized businesses indicated that they
were unable to determine what affiliation any computer
security offenders had with the business (table 9). The type
of incident for which businesses had the least information
about the offender was denial of service (50% of businesses).
Conversely, some offender information was
known by the majority of victims of theft of intellectual property,
(94% of businesses) and embezzlement (93%).
Risk level Number of incidents
All businesses 22,138,250
Critical infrastructure 13,039,900
High risk 4,133,800
Moderate risk 1,979,400
Low risk 2,985,100
Risk level
Monetary loss
(in thousands)
All businesses $866,600
Critical infrastructure $287,600
High risk 205,100
Moderate risk 76,100
Low risk 297,800
Table 10. Suspected computer security offenders’
affiliation with business, by type of incident, 2005
Number of
businesses
Percent of businesses for which
the suspected offender was an—
Type of incident Insider Outsider Other
All incidents 3,182 40% 71% 11%
Cyber attack 2,480 27% 74% 10%
Computer virus 2,151 25 75 6
Denial of service 547 19 67 18
Vandalism or
sabotage 243 42 56 6
Cyber theft 720 74% 32% 8%
Embezzlement 212 93 7 #
Fraud 298 52 50 9
Theft of intellectual
property 202 84 20 5
Theft of personal or
financial data 188 68 32 7
Other computer
security incidents 1,030 30% 72% 8%
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
respondents could detect more than 1 type of incident. Detail may sum
to more than 100% because respondents could provide multiple suspected
offender classifications. See appendix table 7 for suspected
offenders, by industry.
# Percentage was suppressed to avoid disclosing information about
individual businesses.
Table 9. Businesses with no information about computer
security offenders, by type of incident, 2005
Businesses
Type of incident Number Percent*
All incidents 4,875 35%
Cyber attack 4,204 41%
Computer virus 3,778 43
Denial of service 1,104 50
Vandalism or sabotage 314 23
Cyber theft 800 10%
Embezzlement 228 7
Fraud 349 15
Theft of intellectual property 216 6
Theft of personal or financial data 236 20
Other computer security incidents 1,709 40%
*Represents businesses detecting the given type of incident and
providing “don’t know” as the only response to the offender question.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 7
In 2005 someone from outside the business, such as a
hacker or competitor, was responsible for at least one
computer security incident against 71% of the businesses
that were able to make a determination about the
suspected offender (table 10). For cyber attacks and other
computer security incidents, nearly 75% of businesses said
the suspected offender was an outsider. By comparison,
the majority of businesses detecting cyber theft reported
that the suspected offender was an insider (employee, contractor,
or vendor working for the business). For
embezzelment, more than 90% of businesses said the
suspected offender was an insider, which is to be
expected due to the nature of the crime. For thefts of
intellectual property, nearly 85% of businesses said an
insider was involved.
Motion picture and sound recording businesses (87%
of victimized businesses) had the highest percentage of
outside offenders (see apppendix table 7). By
comparison, arts and entertainment businesses had the
lowest (55%). Retail (54%), finance (50%), and utility
businesses (50%) showed the highest percentage of
inside offenders. Petroleum businesses (24%),
architecture and engineering businesses (25), and
business and technical schools (26%) had the lowest.
Computer system design businesses had the second
highest prevalence of outside offenders (84% of
victimized businesses) and one of the lowest
prevalence rates of inside offenders (29%).
Most businesses did not report cyber attacks to law
enforcement authorities
When a computer security incident was detected, businesses
responded in a variety of ways. The majority of
businesses (87%) reported the incident to some person
or organization (table 11). Eighty percent of responding
businesses reported incidents to someone within their
business. Fifteen percent of respondents reported incidents
to another organization, such as their computer
security contractor or internet service provider. Fifteen
percent of victimized businesses reported incidents to
law enforcement. Law enforcement includes federal,
state and local law enforcement agencies, and official
organizations affiliated with law enforcement such as
InfraGard (an organization that works with the Federal
Bureau of Investigation), the United States Secret Service
(USSS) sponsored Electronic Crimes Task Forces,
USSS Cyber Investigative Section (CIS), and CERT CC
(an organization that works with the Department of
Homeland Security).
Reporting of incidents to law enforcement authorities
varied by the type of incident. The majority of
businesses reported embezzlement (72%), fraud
(63%), and theft of personal or financial data (60%).
Few businesses reported theft of intellectual property
(27%), any type of cyber attack (6%), or other computer
security incidents (12%) to law enforcement officials.
Among businesses not reporting incidents to law
enforcement authorities, the majority (86%) indicated that
incidents were reported elsewhere (within the business or
to an organization such as their security contractor) rather
than to law enforcement (table 12). Half of the businesses
responded that they thought there was nothing to be
gained by reporting an incident to law enforcement. Other
businesses said they did not think to report the incident
(22%), did not know who to contact (11%), or thought the
incident was outside the jurisdiction of law enforcement
authorities (7%).
Table 11. Organizations to which computer security incidents
were reported, by type of incident, 2005
Percent of businesses reporting incidents—
Type of incident
Number of
businesses Total
Within
business
To another
organization
To law
enforcement
All incidents 2,714 87% 80% 15% 15%
Cyber attack 2,353 86% 81% 14% 6%
Computer virus 2,150 87 83 13 5
Denial of service 579 70 57 18 6
Vandalism or
sabotage 177 76 60 11 14
Cyber theft 424 92% 46% 9% 56%
Embezzlement 136 96 27 5 72
Fraud 176 91 38 13 63
Theft of intellectual
property 109 88 67 4 27
Theft of personal
or financial data 127 85 33 9 60
Other computer
security incidents 952 78% 69% 7% 12%
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
respondents could detect more than one type of incident. Detail may sum to
more than 100% because businesses could report to more than one place.
Table 12. Reasons businesses did not report incidents to law
enforcement authorities, by type of incident, 2005
Type of incident
Reason for not reporting All
Cyber
attack
Cyber
theft Other
Reported elsewhere 86% 87% 78% 77%
Within business 83 84 72 75
To another organization 16 15 14 8
Nothing to be gained 50 47 28 55
Did not think to report 22 22 4 17
Did not know who to contact 11 11 3 9
Outside jurisdiction of law
enforcement 7 6 10 7
Negative publicity or decreased
confidence 3 2 8 1
Other reason 11 9 18 9
Number of businesses 2,606 2,285 272 874
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
respondents could detect more than one type of incident. Detail may sum to
more than 100% because respondents could provide more than one
reason.
8 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Few businesses (3%) indicated that their decision not to
report an incident to law enforcement was based on the
possibility of negative publicity or decreased confidence in
the business.
Three-fifths of the businesses detecting cyber attacks
reported that the Internet was involved
One critical aspect of computer security is determining
which networks were accessed in an incident. (Accessed
networks include networks that were breached, used to get
into another part of the computer system, or affected by the
incident—for instance, networks vandalized or on which
malware was surreptitiously installed.) NCSS data identify
which systems tended to be targeted. Nearly 1,600 businesses
that detected incidents also provided information on
the systems the business used and which ones were
accessed during an incident.
A majority of the businesses detected at least one incident
involving the Internet and/or a local area network
(LAN) (table 13). The Internet was the most prevalent
vehicle or target of cyber attacks (64% of businesses),
while cyber thieves tended to access a business’s LAN
(57% of businesses). For victims of other computer security
incidents, half of the businesses reported the Internet,
half reported their LAN, and more than a quarter
said their wide area network (WAN) was accessed.
Other networks were accessed to a lesser extent. Intranet
or Extranet connections were accessed during computer
breaches for 17% of respondents, stand-alone
workstations (15%), other networks such as virtual private
networks (12%) and wireless connections (8%)
were also accessed (not shown in a table).
Another critical aspect of computer security is determining
whether laptops not owned by the business posed
more of a security threat than business-owned laptops.
Nearly a third of the businesses said a business-owned
laptop was involved in at least one computer security
incident. Business-owned laptops were cited less frequently
as having been used in cyber attacks (10% of
businesses) or cyber thefts (20%) than in other computer
security incidents (38%). In comparison, 8% of the businesses
reported non-business laptops were used in a
cyber attack, 7% in a cyber theft, and 16% in an other
computer security incident (not shown in a table).
Of the 4,000 businesses detecting a virus infection, 51%
provided information on how viruses were introduced into
their computer systems. E-mail attachments were the most
commonly cited vehicle (77% of businesses) for introducing
computer virus infections (table 14).
Small businesses (83%) were somewhat more vulnerable
to virus-laden e-mails than large businesses (72%).
Conversely, large businesses (37%) were more vulnerable
to portable media such as CDs or thumb drives as a source
of virus infections, compared to small businesses (14%).
This difference might be explained by a greater tendency of
larger businesses to use portable media.
Internet downloads were the second most prevalent source
of computer virus infections. Sixty-one percent of
businesses detected virus infections from Internet
downloads. This percent did not vary by business size.
Table 13. Networks most frequently accessed in computer
security incidents, by type of incident, 2005
Percent of businesses for which accessed
system or network was—
Type of incident Total Internet
Local area
network
Wide area
network
Business
laptop
All incidents 100% 56% 55% 31% 30%
Cyber attacka 42 64 46 33 10
Cyber theft 24 39 57 26 20
Other 57 50 53 28 38
Number of businessesb 1,586 1,509 1,545 1,191 1,424
Note: Detail may sum to more than 100% because incidents could involve
multiple networks.
aIncludes incidents of denial of service and vandalism or sabotage only.
bBased on businesses that detected an incident and used the given system.
Table 14. Sources of computer viruses, by business size, 2005
Percent of businesses for which source
of virus was—
Number of
employees
Number of
businesses
E-mail
attachment
Internet
download
Portable
media Other
All businesses 1,995 77% 61% 27% 18%
25 – 99 301 83 61 14 13
100 – 999 1,012 80 62 24 15
1,000 or more 682 72 60 37 25
Note: Detail may sum to more than 100% because respondents could
provide more than one virus source. Businesses with fewer than 25 employees
were not asked about virus sources.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 9
Insufficient anti-virus software was the most prevalent
vulnerability
Overall, 62% of the businesses using anti-virus software
said the software was inadequate in preventing incidents
(table 15). Nearly half of the businesses using anti-spyware
or anti-adware said the software did not prevent an incident.
Internal controls (31% of businesses), e-mail logs and
filters (27%), and firewalls (26%) were also commonly cited
as insufficient.
Security insufficiencies differed depending on the type of
incident. The most prevalent security deficiencies were
anti-virus software for cyber attacks (66% of businesses),
misuse of authorized access for cyber theft (46%), and
anti-spyware and anti-adware for other computer security
incidents (62%).
Other security measures appeared to be more successful
in preventing incidents. Biometrics (5% of businesses), digital
certificates (5%), password generators (6%), and
encryption (7%) were least frequently cited as the mechanisms
that were inadequate to prevent incidents (not shown
in a table).
Businesses that outsourced all or part of their
computer security had a greater prevalence of
incidents
Businesses that outsourced all or part of their computer
security had a higher prevalence of cybercrime compared
to businesses that performed all security in-house.
Sixty-four percent of businesses that outsourced at least
one security measure detected one or more cyber attacks
in 2005 (table 16). By comparison, 55% of businesses that
kept all security functions in-house detected a cyber attack
that same year.
The security measure that showed the greatest difference
in prevalence of attacks between outsourcing and in-house
was physical security. Businesses that outsourced physical
security had the highest prevalence of cyber attacks (73%),
compared to businesses that managed their own physical
security (60%). Several security measures showed little or
no difference between the businesses that outsourced
computer security and those that kept it in-house. These
include business continuity plans and formal audit standards.
Two security measures showed a slightly lower
prevalence of cyber attacks when outsourced: network
watch centers and configuration management.
Table 16. Detection of cyber attacks, by whether security
was in-house or outsourced, 2005
In-house security Outsourced securitya
Type of security
practice
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
cyber attack
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
cyber attack
Total 3,194 55% 3,416 64%
Physical security 1,482 60 331 73
Equipment
decommissioning 876 63 397 70
Otherb 141 34 232 69
Personnel policy 1,305 60 337 68
Network watch center 369 71 654 68
Periodic audits 961 62 834 67
Vulnerability/risk
assessment 733 62 962 67
Intrusion testing 552 63 1,249 66
Identification of critical
assets 1,109 62 195 65
Formal audit standards 316 64 310 65
Disaster recovery plan 1,971 59 894 64
Corporate security
policy 1,733 61 189 63
Regular review of
systems/logs 1,190 59 497 62
Configuration
management 843 64 606 62
Employee training 1,056 59 298 62
Business continuity plan 1,200 60 458 60
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total and detail may
sum to more than 100% because respondents could provide more than one
type of security practice.
a Security practices may have been partially or completely outsourced.
bIncludes limiting system access, practices designed to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley
Act of 2002, and automatic patch management.
Table 15. Most frequent computer security vulnerabilities,
by type of incident, 2005
Inadequate security
measure
Type of incident
All
incidents
Cyber
attack
Cyber
theft Other
Anti-virus software 62% 66% 10% 38%
Anti-spyware/anti-adware 47 36 10 62
Internal controls 31 28 29 24
E-mail logs and filters 27 24 10 27
Firewall 26 25 9 22
Personnel policy 24 19 34 22
Misuse of authorized access 18 11 46 15
Number of businesses* 4,525 3,899 718 1,544
Note: Number of businesses may sum to more than total because
businesses could detect more than one type of incident. Detail may sum to
more than 100% because respondents could provide multiple
vulnerabilities.
*Represents the number of businesses that detected incidents and provided
information on security inadequacies.
10 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Methodology
Sample design
The National Computer Security Survey sample was a
stratified, random sample of businesses designed to produce
national and industry-level estimates. The sample
was stratified by industry, risk level, and size of business.
Thirty-six industries, as determined by the North American
Industrial Classification System (NAICS), were within the
scope of the survey. (See appendix table 1 for a complete
list and definition of industries.) Risk level comprised four
groups: critical infrastructure, high risk, moderate risk, and
low risk. Critical infrastructure consisted of businesses
operating in the industries with which the Department of
Homeland Security formed Information Sharing and Analysis
Centers (ISACs). Each of the remaining businesses
was designated as high, moderate, or low risk depending
on its industry of operation’s risk of incidents, loss, and
downtime. Business size was determined by the number of
employees and was divided into nine size categories. The
sampling frame, Dunn and Bradstreet, contained records
for nearly 7.3 million in-scope businesses. Businesses
without employees on their payroll—such as family owned
and operated businesses—were out of scope.
Sampling was done at the enterprise level, except in cases
of businesses with large subsidiaries operating in different
economic sectors. To preserve the ability to provide industry-level
findings, these businesses were sampled at the
highest level of subsidiary with distinct lines of business.
A sample of 35,596 businesses was drawn to produce
national and industry-level estimates and to track changes
of more than 2.5% over time. (See appendix table 2 for a
summary of the sample by risk level and industry.) Businesses
with more than 5,000 employees and Fortune 500
businesses were drawn with certainty to ensure the representation
of all industries. Because some industries typically
do not have large businesses, the largest 50 businesses
were also included with certainty. Due to the
particular importance of the nation’s critical infrastructure,
businesses in these strata were over-sampled. High risk
industries such as manufacturing, retail, and wholesale
were also over-sampled.
Tables
Denominators reflect the number of businesses that
responded to the questions relevant to a given table. For
example, in table 5 the denominator represents the number
of businesses that responded to questions on networks
used by the business, whether computer security incidents
were detected, and networks that were affected in those
incidents (if any). Unless otherwise noted, missing items or
responses of “don’t know” have been omitted. Totals and
medians are based on positive responses and exclude
zeroes.
Incident percentages are based on 7,636 businesses that
had a computer and responded to at least 1 incident question;
7,626 businesses responded to at least 1 question on
cyber attacks, 7,561 to at least 1 question on cyber theft,
and 7,492 to at least 1 question on other computer security
incidents.
For theft of intellectual property, 29% of 198 businesses
provided multiple types; for personal or financial data, 60%
of 235 businesses specified more than 1 type; and for other
computer security incidents, 59% of 1,762 businesses
identified multiple types.
Missing and excluded data
Of the 8,079 businesses providing information on whether
or not they had computer systems, 14 businesses reported
contradictory information. Because the responses from
these 14 businesses could not be reconciled, they were
excluded from all analyses.
Each table underwent a detailed disclosure analysis to
ensure the confidentiality of responses given by individual
businesses. As a result, some responses were excluded
from totals and medians. Table 8 and appendix table 6
were affected. Six responses were excluded from the number
of computer security incidents; six responses were
excluded from monetary loss; and three responses were
excluded from system downtime. The disclosure analysis
also resulted in the suppression of values for some cells in
table 10, appendix table 6, and appendix table 7.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 11
Definitions of computer security incidents
Computer virus—a hidden fragment of computer code which
propagates by inserting itself into or modifying other programs.
Includes viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. Excludes spyware,
adware, and other malware.
Denial of service—the disruption, degradation, or exhaustion of
an Internet connection or e-mail service that results in an interruption
of the normal flow of information. Denial of service is
usually caused by ping attacks, port scanning probes, or
excessive amounts of incoming data.
Electronic vandalism or sabotage—the deliberate or malicious
damage, defacement, destruction or other alteration of electronic
files, data, web pages, or programs.
Embezzlement—the unlawful misappropriation of money or
other things of value, by the person to whom the property was
entrusted (typically an employee), for his or her own purpose.
Includes instances in which a computer was used to wrongfully
transfer, counterfeit, forge or gain access to money, property,
financial documents, insurance policies, deeds, use of
rental cars, or various services by the person to whom they
were entrusted.
Fraud—the intentional misrepresentation of information or identity
to deceive others, the unlawful use of a credit or debit card
or ATM, or the use of electronic means to transmit deceptive
information, in order to obtain money or other things of value.
Fraud may be committed by someone inside or outside the
business. Includes instances in which a computer was used to
defraud the business of money, property, financial documents,
insurance policies, deeds, use of rental cars, or various services
by forgery, misrepresented identity, credit card or wire
fraud. Excludes incidents of embezzlement.
Theft of intellectual property—the illegal obtaining of copyrighted
or patented material, trade secrets, or trademarks
(including designs, plans, blueprints, codes, computer programs,
software, formulas, recipes, graphics) usually by electronic
copying. Excludes theft of personal or financial data
such as credit card or social security numbers, names and
dates of birth, financial account information, or any other type
of information.
Theft of personal or financial data—the illegal obtaining of information
that potentially allows someone to use or create
accounts under another name (individual, business, or some
other entity). Personal information includes names, dates of
birth, social security numbers, or other personal information.
Financial information includes credit, debit, or ATM card
account or PIN numbers. Excludes theft of intellectual property
such as copyrights, patents, trade secrets, and trademarks.
Excludes theft of any other type of information.
Other computer security incidents—Incidents that do not fit
within the definitions of the specific types of cyber attacks and
cyber theft. Encompasses spyware, adware, hacking, phishing,
spoofing, pinging, port scanning, sniffing, and theft of
other information, regardless of whether damage or losses
were sustained as a result.
Definitions of other terms
Business—a company, service or membership organization
consisting of one or more establishments under common ownership
or control. For this survey, major subsidiaries were
treated as separate businesses.
CERT C.C.—an organization that works with the U.S. Computer
Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) and the private sector.
CERT C.C. studies computer and network security in order to
provide incident response services to victims of attacks, publish
alerts concerning vulnerabilities and threats, and offer
information to help improve computer and network security.
DHS National Cyber Security Division (NCSD)—works cooperatively
with public, private, and international entities to secure
cyberspace and America’s cyber assets. Its strategic objectives
are to build and maintain an effective national cyberspace
response system and to implement a cyber-risk
management program for protection of critical infrastructure.
DOJ Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section
(CCIPS)—is responsible for implementing the Department’s
national strategies in combating computer and intellectual
property crimes worldwide. The Computer Crime Initiative is a
comprehensive program designed to combat electronic penetrations,
data thefts, and cyber attacks on critical information
systems.
FBI Cyber Division, Computer Intrusion Section—addresses
computer intrusions, which often have international facets and
national economic implications. The Cyber Division as a whole
simultaneously supports FBI priorities across program lines,
assisting counterterrorism, counterintelligence and other criminal
investigations when aggressive technological investigative
assistance is required.
Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs)—organizations
that work with the U.S. Government, law enforcement
agencies, technology providers, and security associations
such as U.S. CERT. ISACs maintain secure databases, analytic
tools and information gathering and distribution facilities
designed to allow authorized individuals to submit reports
about information security threats, vulnerabilities, incidents
and solutions.
InfraGard—an information sharing and analysis effort serving
the interests and combining the knowledge base of a wide
range of members. At its most basic level, InfraGard is a partnership
between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the
private sector.
Subsidiary—a company in which another business has more
than 50% ownership or the power to direct or cause the direction
of management and policies.
U.S. CERT—The United States Computer Emergency Readiness
Team is a partnership between the Department of Homeland
Security and the public and private sectors. Established
in 2003 to protect the nation’s Internet infrastructure,
U.S. CERT coordinates defense against and responses to
cyber attacks across the nation.
United States Secret Service (USSS)—Originally founded to
suppress the counterfeiting of U.S. currency, the USSS now
investigates many financial crimes. The USSS has established
working partnerships in both the law enforcement and business
communities to address such cybercrime issues as protecting
the critical infrastructure, Internet intrusions, and
associated fraud. These partnerships include the Electronic
Crimes Task Forces and the Cyber Investigative Section.
Revised 10/27/08
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Washington, DC 20531
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300
PRESORTED STANDARD
POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/BJS
Permit No. G-91
*NCJ~221943*
12 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
This report in portable document format and in
ASCII and its related statistical data and tables are
available at the BJS World Wide Web Internet site:
<http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/cb05.htm>
Office of Justice Programs
Innovation • Partnerships • Safer Neighborhoods
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov
The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical
agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Michael D.
Sinclair is acting director.
This Special Report was written by Ramona R.
Rantala, BJS Statistician. Mark Motivans verified the
statistical information. Elizabeth Billheimer and
Bethany Allen assisted with verification.
Ramona R. Rantala was project manager for the
National Computer Security Survey. RAND
Corporation staff, under a cooperative agreement and
in collaboration with BJS, designed the sample,
updated the questionnaire, and collected the data:
Lois M. Davis, Principal Investigator; Daniela Golinelli,
Statistician; Robin Beckman, Research Programmer;
Sarah Cotton, Survey Director; Robert Anderson, CoPrincipal
Investigator; Anil Bamezai, Policy
Researcher; Christopher Corey, Survey Technical
Support Manager; Megan Zander-Cotugno, Survey
Coordinator; and John Adams, Senior Statistician.
Joseph Garrett, Senior Vice President, and Julie
Young, Research Director of Market Research, Inc.,
designed and monitored the web-based data
collection instrument.
Catherine Bird and Tina L. Dorsey edited and
produced the report. Jayne E. Robinson prepared the
report for final printing.
September 2008, NCJ 221943
Revised 10/27/08
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 13
Appendix table 1. North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes used in sample design, 2005
NAICS code*
Risk level and industry Sector
Sub-sector or
Industry group Description
Critical Infrastructure
Agriculture 11 111 Crop production (farms, orchards, groves, nurseries)
112 Animal production (ranches, farms, feedlots)
Chemical and drug
manufacturing 32 325 Basic chemicals, resins and plastics, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals and medicines,
paint and adhesives, cleaning compounds, explosives, other chemicals
Computer system design 54 5415 Computer system design, custom programming, facilities management, and other related computer
services
Finance 52 521 Central banks
522 Commercial banks, savings and credit institutions, credit cards, loan brokers
523 Securities, commodity contracts, other financial investments, and related activities
Health Care 62 621 Ambulatory health care services (physicians, dentists, other health care, outpatient care, substance
abuse, diagnostic laboratories, and home health care)
622 Hospitals (medical, surgical, psychiatric, substance abuse, other specialty treatment hospitals)
623 Residential nursing, mental health, substance abuse, elderly, and retirement care facilities
Internet service providers 51 518 Internet service providers, web search portals, data processing and related services
Petroleum mining and
manufacturing 21 211 Oil and gas extraction
32 32411 Petroleum refineries
Publications and
broadcasting 51 511 Publishing (except Internet)
515 Broadcasting (except Internet)
516 Internet publishing and broadcasting
519 Other information services including news syndicates, libraries and archives
Real estate 53 531 Lessors, agents and brokers, and related activities
Telecommunications 51 517 Wired and wireless carriers and resellers, satellite telecommunications, cable and other program
distributors, other telecommunications
Transportation/pipelines 48 Air, rail, water, trucking, transit and ground passenger transportation, pipelines, sight-seeing,
support activities
49 492 Couriers and messengers
Utilities 22 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; natural gas distribution; water, sewage,
and other systems
High
Manufacturing,
durable goods 32 321 Wood products (lumber, plywood, mill work)
327 Non-metallic mineral products (clay, glass, cement)
33 331 Primary metals (foundries, smelting, refining, rolling, drawing, extruding, and alloying)
332 Fabricated metal products
333 Machinery
334 Computers and electronics
335 Electrical equipment, appliances, and components
336 Transportation equipment (motor vehicles, aircraft, railroad rolling stock, ships and boats)
337 Furniture, cabinets, and fixtures
338 Miscellaneous products such as medical equipment, jewelry, sporting goods, and toys
Manufacturing,
non-durable goods 31 Food products, beverage and tobacco products, textiles, apparel, leather and leather products
32 322 Paper
323 Printing and support activities
32412 Asphalt
32419 Other non-fuel petroleum products and coal products
326 Plastics and rubber products
Motion picture and sound
recording 51 512 Motion picture, video, and sound recording production, distribution, and related activities
14 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Appendix table 1. North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes used in sample design, 2005 (continued)
NAICS code*
Risk level and industry Sector
Sub-sector or
Industry group Description
High (continued)
Retail 44 Motor vehicles and parts, furniture and home furnishings, electronics and appliances, building
materials, garden equipment and supplies, food and beverages, health and personal care,
gasoline stations, clothing and accessories
45 Sporting goods, hobby, books and music; general merchandise; miscellaneous stores, such as
florists and office supplies; non-store retailers including online retailers, mail-order, vending
machines, and direct selling establishments
Scientific research and
development 54 5416 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services
5417 Research and development in the physical, engineering, life, and social sciences
Wholesale 42 Merchant wholesalers, durable goods; merchant wholesalers, non-durable goods
Moderate
Accounting 54 5412 Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services
Advertising 54 5418 Advertising, public relations, media representatives, display, direct mail, distribution
5419 Other professional and scientific services such as market research
Architecture and
engineering 54 5413 Architectural and engineering services
5414 Specialized design services such as interior, industrial, and graphic design
Business and technical
schools 61 6114 Business schools and computer and management training
6115 Technical and trade schools
6116 Other schools and instruction including fine arts, sports, language, and driving
6117 Educational support services
Insurance 52 524 Insurance carriers and related activities
525 Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles
Legal services 54 5411 Lawyers, notaries, title abstract and settlement, other legal services
Low
Accommodations 72 721 Traveler accommodation, recreational parks, campgrounds, and vacation camps, rooming and
boarding houses
Administrative support 56 Administrative and support services, waste management and remediation services
Arts and entertainment 71 Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries; museums, historical sites, and similar
institutions; amusement, gambling, and recreation industries
Construction 23 Construction of buildings, heavy and civil engineering construction, specialty trade contractors
Food services 72 722 Full-services restaurants, cafeterias, caterers, and drinking establishments
Forestry, fishing, and
hunting 11 113 Forestry and logging
114 Fishing, hunting and trapping
115 Support activities for agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
Management of
businesses 55 Banks and other holding companies and corporate, subsidiary, and regional managing offices
Mining 21 212 Coal, metal ore, and non-metallic mineral mining
213 Support activities for mining
Other services 81 811 Repair and maintenance services
812 Personal and laundry services
813 Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations
Rental services 53 532 Rental and leasing of goods such as automobiles, appliances, videos, industrial machinery
533 Lessors of non-financial intangible assets, except copyrighted works
Social services 62 624 Social assistance such as family, temporary shelter, vocational rehabilitation, and child day care
services
Warehousing and storage 49 493 General, refrigerated, farm product, and other storage and warehousing
* Some sectors were divided for sampling purposes. The sub-sector and industry group codes provided above show these divisions.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 15
Appendix table 2. National Computer Security Survey universe, sample, and response,
by risk level and industry, 2005
Number of businesses
Risk level and industry Universe Sample Response Response rate
All businesses 7,278,109 35,596 8,079 23%
Critical Infrastructure 1,680,606 11,694 2,719 23%
Agriculture 179,442 740 175 24
Chemical and drug manufacturing 15,998 1,052 201 19
Computer system design 80,289 932 170 18
Finance 187,044 1,275 323 25
Health care 577,499 1,444 423 29
Internet service providers 23,874 776 135 17
Petroleum mining and manufacturing 5,247 567 126 22
Publications and broadcasting 63,758 1,086 218 20
Real estate 352,625 949 175 18
Telecommunications 26,547 821 134 16
Transportation/pipelines 156,433 1,146 303 26
Utilities 11,850 906 336 37
High 2,074,041 7,564 1,737 23%
Manufacturing, durable goods 275,319 1,859 503 27
Manufacturing, non-durable goods 127,248 1,371 327 24
Motion picture and sound recording 31,902 642 88 14
Retail 1,005,175 1,418 316 22
Scientific research and development 185,571 1,053 219 21
Wholesale 448,825 1,221 284 23
Moderate 774,494 5,294 1,184 22%
Accounting 96,023 675 176 26
Advertising 121,116 876 154 18
Architecture and engineering 131,291 897 214 24
Business and technical schools 51,275 756 190 25
Insurance 174,108 1,243 269 22
Legal services 200,680 847 181 21
Low 2,748,969 11,044 2,439 22%
Accommodations 60,944 1,006 143 14
Administrative support 355,532 1,297 255 20
Arts and entertainment 145,913 957 198 21
Construction 692,084 1,103 241 22
Food services 277,281 1,129 212 19
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 29,132 632 152 24
Management of companies 12,960 722 168 23
Mining 15,082 795 190 24
Other services 897,994 1,039 272 26
Rental services 62,970 793 159 20
Social services 180,376 967 317 33
Warehousing 18,701 604 132 22
16 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Appendix table 3. Use of computers and prevalence of computer security incidents, by risk level and industry, 2005
Respondents All incidents Cyber attack Cyber theft Other
Risk level and industry
Number of
businesses
Percent
with
computers
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
incident
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
incident
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
incident
Number of
businesses
Percent
detecting
incident
All businesses 8,079 97% 7,636 67% 7,626 58% 7,561 11% 7,492 24%
Critical Infrastructure 2,719 98% 2,610 67% 2,605 58% 2,580 14% 2,557 25%
Agriculture 175 82 142 51 141 40 142 6 142 17
Chemical and drug
manufacturing 201 98 192 73 192 66 190 12 188 27
Computer system design 170 100 167 79 167 72 165 15 165 25
Finance 323 100 317 67 317 49 316 33 311 25
Health care 423 100 410 67 409 59 404 11 400 24
Internet service providers 135 100 132 66 132 60 132 21 131 24
Petroleum mining and
manufacturing 126 98 124 56 122 52 123 7 123 26
Publications and broadcasting 218 100 212 71 212 65 206 14 205 25
Real estate 175 97 167 65 167 56 164 9 163 25
Telecommunications 134 100 130 82 130 74 127 17 126 32
Transportation/pipelines 303 98 294 64 294 54 291 10 287 22
Utilities 336 98 323 64 322 53 320 8 316 26
High 1,737 97% 1,656 71% 1,655 62% 1,639 12% 1,622 28%
Manufacturing, durable goods 503 97 479 75 479 68 473 15 469 32
Manufacturing, non-durable
goods 327 99 319 72 319 61 317 9 314 28
Motion picture and sound
recording 88 99 84 67 84 63 84 13 81 19
Retail 316 94 293 67 293 58 289 12 288 24
Scientific research and
development 219 99 210 70 210 61 206 8 204 26
Wholesale 284 98 271 67 270 59 270 13 266 27
Moderate 1,184 99% 1,140 67% 1,140 57% 1,127 9% 1,116 24%
Accounting 176 100 173 55 173 47 170 6 168 18
Advertising 154 99 149 67 149 56 148 10 148 26
Architecture and engineering 214 97 204 70 204 60 201 7 200 31
Business and technical
schools 190 95 177 72 177 64 173 8 171 18
Insurance 269 100 263 69 263 57 262 15 258 25
Legal services 181 99 174 69 174 55 173 6 171 27
Low 2,439 94% 2,230 63% 2,226 55% 2,215 8% 2,197 20%
Accommodations 143 96 134 60 134 56 133 14 133 16
Administrative support 255 98 239 65 239 55 238 11 234 25
Arts and entertainment 198 96 181 62 181 54 179 9 176 18
Construction 241 97 223 70 223 61 223 7 222 23
Food services 212 88 186 54 185 48 184 9 183 15
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 152 88 131 44 131 40 129 3 128 16
Management of companies 190 93 150 59 150 51 150 12 150 19
Mining 272 94 170 65 169 58 168 7 167 20
Other services 159 97 249 68 249 59 248 8 245 22
Rental services 317 96 151 64 150 59 150 7 148 18
Social services 132 92 299 66 298 57 296 5 294 24
Warehousing 168 90 117 60 117 53 117 4 117 16
Note: Incident detail may sum to more than 100% because businesses could detect multiple types of incidents. Incident percentages are based on businesses
with computers responding to questions on incidents.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 17
Appendix table 4. Number of computer security incidents, by risk level and industry, 2005
Number of businesses
Detecting
incidents
Providing
number of
incidents
Percent of businesses that detected incidents
Risk level and industry Total
1
incident
2 – 9
incidents
10 or more
incidents
All businesses 5,081 4,439 100% 14 43 43
Critical Infrastructure 1,747 1,518 100% 14 40 46
Agriculture 72 61 100% 18 41 41
Chemical and drug manufacturing 140 122 100% 12 52 36
Computer system design 132 122 100% 9 48 43
Finance 211 176 100% 15 36 48
Health care 274 247 100% 15 40 45
Internet service providers 87 76 100% 16 38 46
Petroleum mining and manufacturing 70 63 100% 17 38 44
Publications and broadcasting 151 135 100% 10 37 53
Real estate 108 94 100% 15 35 50
Telecommunications 107 93 100% 11 44 45
Transportation/pipelines 187 163 100% 14 39 47
Utilities 208 166 100% 15 40 45
High 1,172 1,031 100% 10 43 47
Manufacturing, durable goods 360 313 100% 9 41 50
Manufacturing, non-durable goods 230 197 100% 15 45 41
Motion picture and sound recording 56 52 100% 15 38 46
Retail 197 177 100% 12 43 45
Scientific research and development 147 131 100% 5 47 47
Wholesale 182 161 100% 7 44 48
Moderate 768 671 100% 15 46 39
Accounting 95 80 100% 15 44 41
Advertising 100 88 100% 14 48 39
Architecture and engineering 143 127 100% 8 48 44
Business and technical schools 128 114 100% 18 49 33
Insurance 182 151 100% 19 43 38
Legal services 120 111 100% 15 43 41
Low 1,394 1,219 100% 15 45 40
Accommodations 81 73 100% 16 42 41
Administrative support 156 130 100% 15 37 48
Arts and entertainment 112 96 100% 17 44 40
Construction 155 132 100% 15 49 36
Food services 101 92 100% 14 55 30
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 58 48 100% 21 48 31
Management of companies 110 93 100% 22 43 35
Mining 169 149 100% 17 44 38
Other services 96 87 100% 21 48 31
Rental services 197 174 100% 8 44 48
Social services 70 64 100% 14 50 36
Warehousing 89 81 100% 10 42 48
Note: Detail may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
18 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Appendix table 5. Monetary loss incurred from computer security incidents,
by risk level and industry, 2005
Percent of businesses with monetary loss
Risk level and industry
Number of
businesses Total No loss
$1,000-
$9,000
$10,000-
$99,000
$100,000
or more
All businesses 3,591 100% 10% 51 27 13
Critical Infrastructure 1,248 100% 8% 49 29 14
Agriculture 48 100 10% 71 15 4
Chemical and drug manufacturing 83 100 10% 46 27 18
Computer system design 99 100 2% 51 34 13
Finance 153 100 7% 35 29 29
Health care 199 100 9% 49 28 14
Internet service providers 72 100 8% 44 28 19
Petroleum mining and manufacturing 52 100 12% 50 27 12
Publications and broadcasting 104 100 9% 51 27 13
Real estate 81 100 6% 57 31 6
Telecommunications 82 100 9% 41 38 12
Transportation/pipelines 142 100 9% 52 27 11
Utilities 133 100 11% 56 27 7
High 855 100% 9% 46 29 16
Manufacturing, durable goods 274 100 9% 36 34 21
Manufacturing, non-durable goods 159 100 11% 50 28 11
Motion picture and sound recording 42 100 12% 55 21 12
Retail 141 100 6% 51 25 18
Scientific research and development 101 100 7% 55 26 12
Wholesale 138 100 8% 49 27 17
Moderate 521 100% 9% 55 25 12
Accounting 62 100 10% 58 19 13
Advertising 66 100 12% 50 26 12
Architecture and engineering 104 100 10% 52 28 11
Business and technical schools 82 100 12% 67 16 5
Insurance 122 100 4% 44 32 20
Legal services 85 100 9% 61 22 7
Low 967 100% 12% 56 23 8
Accommodations 54 100 7% 48 33 11
Administrative support 106 100 12% 48 26 13
Arts and entertainment 70 100 19% 60 11 10
Construction 106 100 8% 59 25 8
Food services 71 100 13% 59 17 11
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 38 100 13% 68 11 8
Management of companies 66 100 18% 41 33 8
Mining 72 100 15% 33 40 11
Other services 114 100 14% 60 19 7
Rental services 71 100 10% 61 27 3
Social services 151 100 12% 64 21 3
Warehousing 48 100 4% 75 15 6
Note: Detail may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005 19
Appendix table 6. System downtime caused by computer security incidents, by risk level and industry, 2005
Downtime (in hours)* Percent of businesses with downtime
Risk level and industry
Number of
businesses Total Median Total
1 – 4
hours
5 – 24
hours
25 hours
or longer
All businesses 2,158 323,900hrs 16hrs 100% 23 37 40
Critical Infrastructure 708 152,200hrs 15hrs 100% 23 37 40
Agriculture 26 1,200 11 100% 31 23 46
Chemical and drug manufacturing 48 2,600 17 100% 25 42 33
Computer system design 61 8,500 16 100% 21 38 41
Finance 76 11,900 12 100% 24 38 38
Health care 137 34,800 15 100% 18 43 39
Internet service providers 33 # 14 100% 27 36 36
Petroleum mining and manufacturing 23 1,300 10 100% 26 43 30
Publications and broadcasting 53 5,600 20 100% 26 26 47
Real estate 46 # 20 100% 22 39 39
Telecommunications 47 4,600 20 100% 19 34 47
Transportation/pipelines 82 # 14 100% 24 35 40
Utilities 76 # 12 100% 26 37 37
High 511 75,000hrs 22hrs 100% 19 35 46
Manufacturing, durable goods 162 26,900 32 100% 14 31 56
Manufacturing, non-durable goods 95 15,400 12 100% 26 37 37
Motion picture and sound recording 24 1,600 21 100% 21 38 42
Retail 83 8,700 22 100% 24 34 42
Scientific research and development 70 5,000 20 100% 23 34 43
Wholesale 77 17,600 20 100% 13 43 44
Moderate 312 39,500hrs 12hrs 100% 27 36 38
Accounting 35 700 9 100% 34 37 29
Advertising 39 1,200 10 100% 18 56 26
Architecture and engineering 60 10,300 11 100% 18 42 40
Business and technical schools 55 3,200 24 100% 29 25 45
Insurance 75 20,100 13 100% 27 32 41
Legal services 48 3,900 11 100% 38 27 35
Low 627 57,200hrs 15hrs 100% 23 40 37
Accommodations 39 3,700 24 100% 18 36 46
Administrative support 69 # 16 100% 22 41 38
Arts and entertainment 49 2,600 16 100% 22 41 37
Construction 59 3,400 12 100% 31 29 41
Food services 48 2,400 11 100% 29 38 33
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 16 900 21 100% 19 31 50
Management of companies 40 1,800 14 100% 20 45 35
Mining 49 # 11 100% 22 45 33
Other services 91 15,700 10 100% 26 44 30
Rental services 43 1,600 12 100% 21 49 30
Social services 99 8,100 20 100% 20 33 46
Warehousing 25 900 16 100% 16 48 36
Note: 254 businesses sustained no downtime. These were excluded to avoid disclosing information about individual businesses.
The percentage of businesses sustaining no downtime varied by industry and ranged from 4% to 18%. Downtime information
was not collected for incidents of cyber theft. Detail may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
*Total and median downtime hours exclude three outliers and the values of some cells are suppressed (#) to avoid disclosing
information about individual businesses.
20 Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005
Appendix table 7. Suspected offenders’ affiliation with business,
by risk level and industry, 2005
Number of
businesses
Percent of businesses for which
the suspected offender was an—
Risk level and industry Insider Outsider Other
All businesses 3,182 40% 71% 11%
Critical Infrastructure 1,144 42% 70% 11%
Agriculture 41 17 78 7
Chemical and drug manufacturing 90 44 72 11
Computer system design 91 29 84 7
Finance 152 50 72 15
Health care 179 49 63 14
Internet service providers 64 44 80 8
Petroleum mining and manufacturing 42 24 81 17
Publications and broadcasting 91 36 81 10
Real estate 70 44 59 11
Telecommunications 73 37 68 12
Transportation/pipelines 111 41 68 11
Utilities 140 50 61 9
High 738 43% 74% 9%
Manufacturing, durable goods 233 48 75 9
Manufacturing, non-durable goods 151 36 75 9
Motion picture and sound recording 30 40 87 13
Retail 113 54 66 11
Scientific research and development 97 31 72 14
Wholesale 114 44 78 4
Moderate 477 32% 74% 15%
Accounting 53 32 75 8
Advertising 57 30 75 9
Architecture and engineering 99 25 80 12
Business and technical schools 66 26 70 21
Insurance 132 41 73 22
Legal services 70 31 71 13
Low 823 38% 69% 10%
Accommodations 50 46 70 #
Administrative support 94 43 62 11
Arts and entertainment 58 43 55 17
Construction 95 37 78 3
Food services 56 45 64 9
Forestry, fishing, and hunting 26 27 65 23
Management of companies 68 43 65 9
Mining 105 30 75 8
Other services 59 37 68 15
Rental services 117 37 74 9
Social services 40 30 65 10
Warehousing 55 29 73 18
Note: Detail may sum to more than 100% because respondents could provide multiple
offender classifications. Of the 4,875 businesses responding to questions on offenders for at
least one type of incident, 35% were unable to provide any offender classifications. Total percentages
are based on the businesses that provided at least 1 offender classification.
# Cell value suppressed to avoid disclosing information about individual businesses.

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