Define and differentiate qualitative from quantitative research.

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                                                                                                     FINAL EXAM

 
CUR 526/EDU 708
 
 

  1. Define and differentiate qualitative from quantitative research. Find two case studies that use these approaches.
    1. Quantitative research according to the text “is the collection an analysis of numerical data to describe, explain, predict, or control phenomena of interest.
      1. The approach entails more than just the use of numerical data. At the outset of a study, quantitative researches state the hypothesis to be examined and specify the research procedures that will be used to carry out the study.
    2. Qualitative research as described by the text “is a collection, analysis and interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual (i.e. non-numerical) data to gain insights into a particular phenomenon of interest.
      1. The approaches are based on different beliefs and designed for different purposes that quantitative approaches.
    3. Qualitative research differs from quantitative research in two additional ways: 1) Qualitative research often involves the simultaneous collection of a wealth of narrative and visual data over an extended period of time, and 2) as much as is possible, data collection occurs in a naturalistic setting. In quantitative studies, in contrast, research is most often conducted in researcher-controlled environments under researcher-controlled conditions, and the activities of data collection, analysis, and writing are separate, discrete activities.

Two examples are:

  1. Task 1A: Quantitative Approach Example:
    1. Can Instructional and Emotional Support in the First Grade Classroom Make a Difference for Children at Risk of School Failure
  2. Task B: Qualitative Approach Example:
    1. Developing Teacher Epistemological Sophistication About Multicultural Curriculum: A Case Study

 

  1. Identify two research approaches for each and identify two research instruments and data analysis procedures for each. Explain why these approaches are appropriate. Find two case studies that use these approaches.
    1. Task 1A: Quantitative Approach Example:
      1. Can Instructional and Emotional Support in the First Grade Classroom Make a Difference for Children at Risk of School Failure
      2. Instruments: 1) defining a population, and 2) Selecting a Random Sampling (stratified, clustered, systematic, determining sample size)
        1. Classification of research by approach: “a natural experiment” or Causal-Comparative research
        2. Causal-comparative research “grouping variable” is the classroom process offering varying levels of emotional and instructional support
  • Dependent variables are “performance on an individually administered standardized achievement battery” and “first grade teacher ratings of conflict with the student.”
  1. Because of an interest in examining both academic and social functioning, they examined two major outcomes-performance on an individually administered, standardized achievement battery, and first-grade teacher ratings of conflict with the student.
  1. Task B: Qualitative Approach Example:
    1. Developing Teacher Epistemological Sophistication About Multicultural Curriculum: A Case Study
    2. Selecting Research Participants: Purposive Sampling Approaches, and Determining Sample Size
      1. The scientific method – selection and definition of a problem: “to examine the relationship between a teacher’s learning and my teaching strategies in the university…”
      2. Case study research is focused on a “unit of study” or “bound system,” that is, a beginning teacher new to multicultural education.
  • Applied research focused on how a beginning teacher integrates university coursework on multicultural education into her classroom teaching and the decision-making process related to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum.
  1. Scientific method: execution of research procedures: 1) sample selection, 2) curriculum unit, 3) journal, 4) field notes, and 50 interviews

 

  1. How would you test for validity and reliability of a measuring instrument?

Explain using an example.

  1. Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure and thus permits appropriate interpretation scores. When tested, the test is for finding the purpose and the measurement for help to achieve that purpose. It also looks for the information to be validated according to the test that’s given.
    1. Example in the book was about Big pine School learning about science from the methods of: 1) hands on, and 2) by the book and rote. The question that was asked, “Does this test or instrument permit the curriculum director to select the best teaching method?”
  2. Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it is measuring. It tells about the consistency of scores produced; tells about the appropriateness of a test.
    1. Looking at how a student may score on a test. There are variables that may change the outcome of the situation, therefore, reliability may be question based on the circumstance

 

  1. What could threaten the validity of a measuring instrument? Use an example to illustrate.
    1. Unclear test directions
    2. Confusing and ambiguous test
    3. Vocabulary too difficult for test takers
    4. Overly difficult and complex sentence structures
    5. Inconsistent and subjective scoring methods
    6. Untaught items included on achievement tests
    7. Failure to follow standardized test administration procedures
    8. Cheating, either by participants or by someone teaching the correct answers to the specific test items
      1. These factors diminish the validity of tests because they distort or produce atypical test performance, which in turn distorts the desired interpretation of the test scores
      2. Writing a test that does not have any questions that were taught in class, but presumed that the student should know the information.

 

  1. What could threaten the reliability of a measuring instrument? Use an example to illustrate.
    1. Unpredictable circumstances
    2. Providing inconsistent information about a performance
    3. Testing depending on the circumstance will possibly change.
    4. And individual’s health, motivation, anxiety, luck, attitude, and attention change from time to time will affect the reliability of a measuring instrument

 

  1. Why are case studies important to educational research?
    1. Case study research is a qualitative research approach in which researchers focus on a unit of study known as a bounded system (e.g., individual teachers, a classroom, or a school.
    2. Involves according to Chapter 14;
      1. Determining the research questions
      2. Defining the case
  • Determining to role of theory development in case selection
  1. Determining the theoretical and conceptual framework for the study
  2. Deciding whether a single case student, multiple case study, or collective case study is appropriate
  3. Wants to answer the descriptive question: What, How, When, Why, etc.

 
 
 

  1. Why is setting, and why is background information important to have

            accessible in each case study?

  1. Setting and background helps the researcher look at variances to the circumstance surrounding the particular culture, and people.

 

  1. According to APA guidelines, what is the length of time a case study (in general) is considered a reliable source of research information?
    1. According to the APA guidelines, the length of time a case study (in general) is considered a reliable source of research information is that is within a ten year period of time.

 

  1. What is a discrepancy statement?

 

  1. A discrepancy statement is one where the researcher explains the intended purpose for the research. The discrepancy list all who are involved in the research.

 

  1. Define educational goals and objectives.
  2. Educational goals is what one desires to accomplish over a set time. (ex: I would like to complete my Educational Specialist degree by the month/year of June 2017. The educational goal is specific to when should it happen and the time given to complete the task.

 

  1. The objective are the strategies that will help to complete the goal. What it will take to complete the Educational Program (ex: Study, Write papers, Take Test, Complete homework exercises, Pay tuition, etc.)

 

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