Explain the distinction between fatalism and causal determinism.

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Prompt: Explain the distinction between fatalism and causal determinism. Explain the argument for fatalism from foreknowledge. Suppose you were Osmo and you found the book describing your past and future life in a local library. Would it be rational for you adopt a fatalistic attitude and why? How, if at all, do you think that your situation differs from Osmo’s? Are those differences relevant to the question of whether you have free will?
Does not have to use any other sources other than reading from Taylor and lecture (attached). Guide is also attached just for light reference.
1/18/2018
1
Phil 2: Puzzles and Paradoxes
Prof. Sven Bernecker
University of California, Irvine
Fatalism, Determinism
and Free Will
What‘s the Issue?
• We take ourselves to have free will. Any argument for the conclusion that
we don’t have free will – that we never really choose between actions we
are able to do, that nothing is really up to us – would undermine a view of
the world. Hence such an argument will count as a paradox.
• One challenge to free will comes from fate.
2
“The fatalist, then, is someone who believes that whatever happens is and
always was unavoidable. He thinks that it is not up to him what will happen
a thousand years hence, next year, tomorrow, or the very next moment.”
(Taylor, p. 55).
Voluntary vs. Intentional Action
• Intentional action is goal-oriented action. But an intentional
action need not reach its goal, i.e., be successful.
• The motive behind an intentional action need not be rational.
• Whether someone acts intentionally may depend on how the
action is described. E.g., Oedipus intentionally killed the old
man. But Oedipus did not intentionally kill his father.
Nevertheless, the old man was his father.
3
• Being a fee agent is being an agent capable of influencing
the world; being the source of ones own actions.
• Usually voluntary actions are intentional. But some
voluntary actions are unintentional – those one does not do
on purpose, and which can be inhibited with an effort.
• Freedom of will vs. freedom of action: An agent can
possess free will without also having freedom of action.
(Whether one can have freedom of action without free will
is controversial.)
4
1/18/2018
2
Free Will
• The will is free if it is not predetermined/ caused by antecedent factors.
• Free will means that we are self-determined, not (ultimately) subject to
forces outside of our control – it means, we could have chosen
otherwise.
• Subject S‘s will is free with respect to performing action A, if and only if
S could have chosen to do other than A.
• Free will is the ability to choose to do otherwise in the same
circumstances.
5
• “To say that one has free will is to say that
when one decides among forks in the road
of time (or, more prosaically, when one
decides what to do), one is at least
sometimes able to take more than one of
the forks…One has free will if sometimes
more than one of the forks in the road of
time is ‘open’ to one.” (Peter van Inwagen)
• “One lacks free will if on every occasion on
which one must make a decision only one
of the forks before one — of course it will be
the fork one in fact takes — is open to one.”
(Peter van Inwagen)
6
Relevance of Free Will
• We feel that we are free, that we are originators of our own
actions.
• Free will is a condition on the moral responsibility for our actions.
• Free will is a condition on desert for one’s accomplishments (why
sustained effort and creative work are praiseworthy).
• Free will is a condition on the autonomy and dignity of persons
• Free will is a condition on the value we accord to love and
friendship.
7
Causal Determinism
• Causal determinism is the view that the state of the world at a
given time determines the state of the world at the next moment.
• Every event that occurs, including human action, is entirely the
result of earlier causes.
• The state of the universe plus the laws of nature determine a
single unique future.
8
1/18/2018
3
• What is the state of the universe? It is a complete description
of everything occurring at this exact moment:
– The way my shirt is wrinkled right now.
– The position of your fingers on your desk
– The position of all the atoms and molecules in the room
– The mental states each of you have right now
– Everything happening on this planet
– Everything occurring in the universe at this exact moment
• Examples of laws of nature: law of gravitation, law of
conservation of energy, etc.
9
Causal Determinism vs. Fatalism
• Causal determinism is the view that every event that occurs,
including human action, is entirely the result of earlier causes. Note
that some of these earlier causes may be free choices.
• Fatalism is the view that whatever happens now and will happen in
the future happens necessarily. Because the present and future is
fixed, pre-ordained, our choices about what to do in a situation are
inconsequential. E.g., it was true 100 years ago that you would sit in
this lecture hall today.
10
• Note: Fatalism leaves it open
whether there is any purpose
guiding our fates. Fatalism also
leaves it open whether anyone
knows our fates.
1/18/2018
1
Phil 2: Puzzles and Paradoxes
Prof. Sven Bernecker
University of California, Irvine
Argument from
Foreknowledge
Arguments for Fatalism
• Argument from Foreknowledge
• Aristotle‘s Sea Battle Argument
• The Master Argument of Diodorus Cronus
2
Story of Osmo
3
Richard Taylor, “Fate,“ pp. 58-60
m
4
Osmo reads the book, and finds, to his astonishment, a record of his life.
1/18/2018
2
5
Argument from Foreknowledge
1) Necessarily, if God (or anyone) knows you will do x tomorrow, then
you will do x tomorrow.
2) Necessarily, God knows that you will do x tomorrow.
C) Therefore, it is necessary that you do x tomorrow. You don‘t do x
voluntarily.
The argument is valid. But is it sound?
6
Contra Argument from Foreknowledge
• God’s omniscience does not require us to accept premise (2), that
necessarily God knows you will do x tomorrow. When premise (2) is
rephrased as follows:
then the argument from foreknowledge becomes invalid.
• The fact that God (or anyone) knows now what I will do in the future
does not make it necessary that I should do it. It does not rob me of free
will. If God knows that I will do x tomorrow, then I will do x but my doing
x may still be voluntary.
7
2*) God knows that you will do x tomorrow.
• It all depends on why the author of the book of my life (e.g.
God) knows what he knows.
• If the reason the author knows what I will do is because he
controls my mind, then, of course, my will is not free.
• If the reason the author knows what I will do is because he
is a time traveller from the future who closely observed me
and wrote everything down then my will could still be free.
8
1
Guide for Paper Submission & Peer Review
When is my own paper due?
Saturday of week 4 (2/3) at noon.
Submit the paper TWICE!
You must submit your paper to the Turnitin Submissions Assignment AND to the Peer Review Submission
Assignment. The deadline for both submissions is the same: Saturday of week 4 (2/3) at noon. Both assignment
links can be found at the bottom of week 4.
Warning: If you submit paper late to the Peer Review submission section Canvas will not assign you a peer review.
It takes a while for me to manually assign peer review papers. You lose valuable time and you risk not making the
peer review deadline in week 5.
For questions on how to submit a Turnitin enabled assignment see:
https://help.eee.uci.edu/canvas/students/#submit-a-turnitin-enabled-assignment
When do I have to submit the peer review?
By Thursday of week 5 (2/8) at noon.
Why do have to review another student’s paper?
The purpose of this assignment is for you to learn to evaluate the work of your peers by offering constructive
criticism. Often evaluating the work of others can help illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of your own work.
When can I see the paper assigned to me to review?
You will not see the paper assigned to you to review until AFTER you have submitted your own paper (via the Peer
Review assignment) AND until Sunday of week 5 (2/4) at noon. Shortly thereafter, a notification will appear in
your To Do list on the course dashboard. The Canvas system automatically and randomly assigns you a paper to
review after you have submitted your own paper. You have from Sunday at noon until Thursday at noon to review
the paper assigned to you.
2
Where do I put my comments for the other student to see?
Please use the mark-up tool that is integrated into the Peer Assignment feature in Canvas. Here is a link to the
entire help file for the mark-up tool: https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-2959
Quick Guide: Use the Text Tool to add comments directly on the file:
To make a comment, click the Comment button [1]. The commenting menu will expand. Click the comment type
menu [2] and select the type of comment you want to create. In the Comment tool menu, you can leave comments
as a Point Comment, Area Comment, or Text Comment. Each comment type is associated with an icon to help you
identify the purpose of the comment.
• The Point Comment lets you place a comment in a specific place in the document.
• The Area Comment lets you place a comment around a specific area.
• The Text Comment lets you place a comment within lines or paragraph of text.
Is there a rubric for this assignment?
No. But you can use the general rubric below as a guideline for the peer assessment.
3
Criterion:
Poor Fair Good Excellent
Presentation/
Communication
The paper was
inarticulate and difficult
to follow. Did not seem
to know the material.
The paper was
choppy, difficult to
follow. Writer did not
have a grasp on the
information.
Adequate flow to
the paper. The
writer had a
general grasp of
information.
Proficient delivery
of information.
Great flow to the paper.
Exceptional delivery of
information, excellent
grasp and
understanding of
material.
Completeness/
Thinking/Inquiry
The paper included
none of the applicable
components related to
the topic of the
question. Lack of
thought and effort
present.
The paper included
some of the
applicable, critical
components related
to the topic. More
details, insight, and
critical thought
needed.
The paper included
most of the
applicable
components
related to the topic.
Proficient
presentation of
facts using many
details.
The paper included all
of the applicable
components related to
the topic. Exceptional
insight into key points
of the speaker.
Knowledge/
Understanding of
Material
The student failed to
identify required
components.
Presentation of material
was unclear and not
related to the topic at
hand.
The student identified
each component
required of the
presentation. Topic
explained with some
accuracy, needs more
details.
The student
identified each
component
contained in the
presentation. The
material presented
was clear but not
comprehensive.
Utilized many
details and sources.
The student identified
each component
required of the
presentation.
Knowledge of material
is concise, exceptionally
accurate, and clearly
explained.
How do I know when someone has reviewed my paper?
There are a few places where you can find your peers’ feedback. Hunt around and you will find it! View recent
feedback in the sidebar, on the submissions details page, and on the assignment page.
Are these peer reviews anonymous?
No.
Will my review affect my peer’s grade?
No. The actual feedback and commentary that you give another student will not count towards THEIR grade.
However, YOU will get points for completing the peer review.

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

GET A 40% DISCOUNT ON YOU FIRST ORDER

ORDER NOW DISCOUNT CODE >>>> WELCOME40

 

 

Posted in Uncategorized

Explain the distinction between fatalism and causal determinism.

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

GET A 40% DISCOUNT ON YOU FIRST ORDER

ORDER NOW DISCOUNT CODE >>>> WELCOME40

Prompt: Explain the distinction between fatalism and causal determinism. Explain the argument for fatalism from foreknowledge. Suppose you were Osmo and you found the book describing your past and future life in a local library. Would it be rational for you adopt a fatalistic attitude and why? How, if at all, do you think that your situation differs from Osmo’s? Are those differences relevant to the question of whether you have free will?
Does not have to use any other sources other than reading from Taylor and lecture (attached). Guide is also attached just for light reference.
1/18/2018
1
Phil 2: Puzzles and Paradoxes
Prof. Sven Bernecker
University of California, Irvine
Fatalism, Determinism
and Free Will
What‘s the Issue?
• We take ourselves to have free will. Any argument for the conclusion that
we don’t have free will – that we never really choose between actions we
are able to do, that nothing is really up to us – would undermine a view of
the world. Hence such an argument will count as a paradox.
• One challenge to free will comes from fate.
2
“The fatalist, then, is someone who believes that whatever happens is and
always was unavoidable. He thinks that it is not up to him what will happen
a thousand years hence, next year, tomorrow, or the very next moment.”
(Taylor, p. 55).
Voluntary vs. Intentional Action
• Intentional action is goal-oriented action. But an intentional
action need not reach its goal, i.e., be successful.
• The motive behind an intentional action need not be rational.
• Whether someone acts intentionally may depend on how the
action is described. E.g., Oedipus intentionally killed the old
man. But Oedipus did not intentionally kill his father.
Nevertheless, the old man was his father.
3
• Being a fee agent is being an agent capable of influencing
the world; being the source of ones own actions.
• Usually voluntary actions are intentional. But some
voluntary actions are unintentional – those one does not do
on purpose, and which can be inhibited with an effort.
• Freedom of will vs. freedom of action: An agent can
possess free will without also having freedom of action.
(Whether one can have freedom of action without free will
is controversial.)
4
1/18/2018
2
Free Will
• The will is free if it is not predetermined/ caused by antecedent factors.
• Free will means that we are self-determined, not (ultimately) subject to
forces outside of our control – it means, we could have chosen
otherwise.
• Subject S‘s will is free with respect to performing action A, if and only if
S could have chosen to do other than A.
• Free will is the ability to choose to do otherwise in the same
circumstances.
5
• “To say that one has free will is to say that
when one decides among forks in the road
of time (or, more prosaically, when one
decides what to do), one is at least
sometimes able to take more than one of
the forks…One has free will if sometimes
more than one of the forks in the road of
time is ‘open’ to one.” (Peter van Inwagen)
• “One lacks free will if on every occasion on
which one must make a decision only one
of the forks before one — of course it will be
the fork one in fact takes — is open to one.”
(Peter van Inwagen)
6
Relevance of Free Will
• We feel that we are free, that we are originators of our own
actions.
• Free will is a condition on the moral responsibility for our actions.
• Free will is a condition on desert for one’s accomplishments (why
sustained effort and creative work are praiseworthy).
• Free will is a condition on the autonomy and dignity of persons
• Free will is a condition on the value we accord to love and
friendship.
7
Causal Determinism
• Causal determinism is the view that the state of the world at a
given time determines the state of the world at the next moment.
• Every event that occurs, including human action, is entirely the
result of earlier causes.
• The state of the universe plus the laws of nature determine a
single unique future.
8
1/18/2018
3
• What is the state of the universe? It is a complete description
of everything occurring at this exact moment:
– The way my shirt is wrinkled right now.
– The position of your fingers on your desk
– The position of all the atoms and molecules in the room
– The mental states each of you have right now
– Everything happening on this planet
– Everything occurring in the universe at this exact moment
• Examples of laws of nature: law of gravitation, law of
conservation of energy, etc.
9
Causal Determinism vs. Fatalism
• Causal determinism is the view that every event that occurs,
including human action, is entirely the result of earlier causes. Note
that some of these earlier causes may be free choices.
• Fatalism is the view that whatever happens now and will happen in
the future happens necessarily. Because the present and future is
fixed, pre-ordained, our choices about what to do in a situation are
inconsequential. E.g., it was true 100 years ago that you would sit in
this lecture hall today.
10
• Note: Fatalism leaves it open
whether there is any purpose
guiding our fates. Fatalism also
leaves it open whether anyone
knows our fates.
1/18/2018
1
Phil 2: Puzzles and Paradoxes
Prof. Sven Bernecker
University of California, Irvine
Argument from
Foreknowledge
Arguments for Fatalism
• Argument from Foreknowledge
• Aristotle‘s Sea Battle Argument
• The Master Argument of Diodorus Cronus
2
Story of Osmo
3
Richard Taylor, “Fate,“ pp. 58-60
m
4
Osmo reads the book, and finds, to his astonishment, a record of his life.
1/18/2018
2
5
Argument from Foreknowledge
1) Necessarily, if God (or anyone) knows you will do x tomorrow, then
you will do x tomorrow.
2) Necessarily, God knows that you will do x tomorrow.
C) Therefore, it is necessary that you do x tomorrow. You don‘t do x
voluntarily.
The argument is valid. But is it sound?
6
Contra Argument from Foreknowledge
• God’s omniscience does not require us to accept premise (2), that
necessarily God knows you will do x tomorrow. When premise (2) is
rephrased as follows:
then the argument from foreknowledge becomes invalid.
• The fact that God (or anyone) knows now what I will do in the future
does not make it necessary that I should do it. It does not rob me of free
will. If God knows that I will do x tomorrow, then I will do x but my doing
x may still be voluntary.
7
2*) God knows that you will do x tomorrow.
• It all depends on why the author of the book of my life (e.g.
God) knows what he knows.
• If the reason the author knows what I will do is because he
controls my mind, then, of course, my will is not free.
• If the reason the author knows what I will do is because he
is a time traveller from the future who closely observed me
and wrote everything down then my will could still be free.
8
1
Guide for Paper Submission & Peer Review
When is my own paper due?
Saturday of week 4 (2/3) at noon.
Submit the paper TWICE!
You must submit your paper to the Turnitin Submissions Assignment AND to the Peer Review Submission
Assignment. The deadline for both submissions is the same: Saturday of week 4 (2/3) at noon. Both assignment
links can be found at the bottom of week 4.
Warning: If you submit paper late to the Peer Review submission section Canvas will not assign you a peer review.
It takes a while for me to manually assign peer review papers. You lose valuable time and you risk not making the
peer review deadline in week 5.
For questions on how to submit a Turnitin enabled assignment see:
https://help.eee.uci.edu/canvas/students/#submit-a-turnitin-enabled-assignment
When do I have to submit the peer review?
By Thursday of week 5 (2/8) at noon.
Why do have to review another student’s paper?
The purpose of this assignment is for you to learn to evaluate the work of your peers by offering constructive
criticism. Often evaluating the work of others can help illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of your own work.
When can I see the paper assigned to me to review?
You will not see the paper assigned to you to review until AFTER you have submitted your own paper (via the Peer
Review assignment) AND until Sunday of week 5 (2/4) at noon. Shortly thereafter, a notification will appear in
your To Do list on the course dashboard. The Canvas system automatically and randomly assigns you a paper to
review after you have submitted your own paper. You have from Sunday at noon until Thursday at noon to review
the paper assigned to you.
2
Where do I put my comments for the other student to see?
Please use the mark-up tool that is integrated into the Peer Assignment feature in Canvas. Here is a link to the
entire help file for the mark-up tool: https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-2959
Quick Guide: Use the Text Tool to add comments directly on the file:
To make a comment, click the Comment button [1]. The commenting menu will expand. Click the comment type
menu [2] and select the type of comment you want to create. In the Comment tool menu, you can leave comments
as a Point Comment, Area Comment, or Text Comment. Each comment type is associated with an icon to help you
identify the purpose of the comment.
• The Point Comment lets you place a comment in a specific place in the document.
• The Area Comment lets you place a comment around a specific area.
• The Text Comment lets you place a comment within lines or paragraph of text.
Is there a rubric for this assignment?
No. But you can use the general rubric below as a guideline for the peer assessment.
3
Criterion:
Poor Fair Good Excellent
Presentation/
Communication
The paper was
inarticulate and difficult
to follow. Did not seem
to know the material.
The paper was
choppy, difficult to
follow. Writer did not
have a grasp on the
information.
Adequate flow to
the paper. The
writer had a
general grasp of
information.
Proficient delivery
of information.
Great flow to the paper.
Exceptional delivery of
information, excellent
grasp and
understanding of
material.
Completeness/
Thinking/Inquiry
The paper included
none of the applicable
components related to
the topic of the
question. Lack of
thought and effort
present.
The paper included
some of the
applicable, critical
components related
to the topic. More
details, insight, and
critical thought
needed.
The paper included
most of the
applicable
components
related to the topic.
Proficient
presentation of
facts using many
details.
The paper included all
of the applicable
components related to
the topic. Exceptional
insight into key points
of the speaker.
Knowledge/
Understanding of
Material
The student failed to
identify required
components.
Presentation of material
was unclear and not
related to the topic at
hand.
The student identified
each component
required of the
presentation. Topic
explained with some
accuracy, needs more
details.
The student
identified each
component
contained in the
presentation. The
material presented
was clear but not
comprehensive.
Utilized many
details and sources.
The student identified
each component
required of the
presentation.
Knowledge of material
is concise, exceptionally
accurate, and clearly
explained.
How do I know when someone has reviewed my paper?
There are a few places where you can find your peers’ feedback. Hunt around and you will find it! View recent
feedback in the sidebar, on the submissions details page, and on the assignment page.
Are these peer reviews anonymous?
No.
Will my review affect my peer’s grade?
No. The actual feedback and commentary that you give another student will not count towards THEIR grade.
However, YOU will get points for completing the peer review.

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

GET A 40% DISCOUNT ON YOU FIRST ORDER

ORDER NOW DISCOUNT CODE >>>> WELCOME40

 

 

Posted in Uncategorized