EXTRA CREDIT 4: ARGUMENT PAPER

EXTRA CREDIT 4: ARGUMENT PAPER
DUE NO LATER THAN MIDNIGHT MAY 10th
NO LATE PAPERS ACCEPTED
This paper is worth UP TO 25 points (FULL CREDIT WILL BE GIVEN FOR A SOLID
PAPER THAT FOLLOWS ALL INSTRUCTIONS BELOW)
Attached are several articles of which you must select one and only one. Here is your
assignment:
STEP 1: Select the article you wish to use for your argument paper
STEP 2: From that article write two statements, one “PRO” and one “CON” about the
issue raised in the article. For example, if the article is about social media privacy you
might write:
• PRO: Social media companies are responsible for keeping peoples’
information private
• CON: Each individual is responsible for keeping his/her information private.
STEP 3: Using the library, Google or Google Scholar locate five (5) REFERENCES that
support your “PRO” side and five (5) REFERENCES that support your “CON” side.
NOTE: FOR EACH SET OF 5 REFERENCES, AT LEAST TWO MUST BE
JOURNAL ARTICLES. NONE OF THE REFERENCES CAN BE THOSE THAT
WERE CITED IN THE ARTICLE YOU USED. YOU WILL NEED TO FIND
OTHERS!
STEP 4: Write a 6-10 page paper (double spaced, 1” margins) summarizing your PRO
arguments and your CON arguments with “FACTS” gleaned from your articles. The
paper should include the following:
• Introduction to the argument
• Support for your PRO argument (when you make a claim from one of your
articles, reference that article either using footnotes, end notes or reference
citations)
• Support for your CON argument (when you make a claim from one of your
articles, reference that article either using footnotes, end notes or reference
citations)
• YOUR CONCLUSION as to which is more valid and WHY
• A list of references used including the 10 required articles (or more). Any
format may be used for the references
STEP 5: Turn in your paper. Here are two options.
ü Option 1: print out your paper and hand it directly to Darcy or Dr. Rosen
ü Option 2: Email your paper to ROSENSBS318ExtraCredit4@gmail.com
HELPFUL NOTES:
Here are a couple of good websites on how to write this type of paper:
ü https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/
ü https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 1/9
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E L E C T R O N I C S
Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of
“Smart” Fabrics
Unlike today’s wearables, new fabrics promise to come with antennas and batteries that are
flexible and washable
SUBSCRIBE
By Asimina Kiourti, The Conversation US on March 13, 2018
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 2/9
The Digitsole Smartshoe is displayed at the 2016 Consumer Electronics Show (CES). Credit: David
Paul Morris Getty Images
The following essay is reprinted with permission from The Conversation, an online
publication covering the latest research.
Archaeology reveals that humans started wearing clothes some 170,000 years ago,
very close to the second-to-last ice age. Even now, though, most modern humans
wear clothes that are only barely different from those earliest garments. But that’s
about to change as flexible electronics are increasingly woven into what are being
called “smart fabrics.”
Many of these are already available for purchase, such as leggings that provide gentle
vibrations for easier yoga, T-shirts that track player performance and sports bras
A D VE R TI SEMENT
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 3/9
that monitor heart rate. Smart fabrics have potentially promising uses in health care
(measuring patients’ heart rate and blood pressure), defense (monitoring soldiers’
health and activity levels), cars (adjusting seat temperatures to make passengers
more comfortable) and even smart cities (letting signs communicate with passersby).
Ideally, the electronic components of these garments—sensors, antennas to transmit
data and batteries to supply power—will be small, flexible and largely unnoticed by
their wearers. That’s true today for sensors, many of which are even machinewashable.
But most antennas and batteries are rigid and not waterproof, so they need
to be detached from the clothing before washing it.
My work at the ElectroScience Laboratory of the Ohio State University aims to make
antennas and power sources that are equally flexible and washable. Specifically,
we’re embroidering electronics directly into fabrics using conductive threads, which
we call “e-threads.”
A D VE R TI SEMENT
A N T E N N A EMBR O I D ERY
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 4/9
The e-threads we’re working with are bundles of twisted polymer filaments to provide
strength, each with a metal-based coating to conduct electricity. The polymer core of
each filament is typically made out of Kevlar or Zylon, while the surrounding coating
is silver. Tens or even hundreds of these filaments are then twisted together to form a
single e-thread that’s usually less than half a millimeter across.
These e-threads can be easily used with common commercial embroidery
equipment–the same computer-connected stitching machines that people use every
day to put their names on sports jackets and sweatshirts. The embroidered antennas
are lightweight and just as good as their rigid copper counterparts, and can be as
intricate as state-of-the-art printed circuit boards.
Our e-thread antennas can even be combined with regular threads in more complex
designs, like integrating antennas into corporate logos or other designs. We’ve been
able to embroider antennas on fabrics as thin as organza and as thick as Kevlar. Once
embroidered, the wires can be connected to sensors and batteries by traditional
soldering or flexible interconnections that plug components together.
A D VE R TI SEMENT
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 5/9
So far, we’ve been able to create smart hats that read deep brain signalsfor patients
with Parkinson’s or epilepsy. We have embroidered T-shirts with antennas that
extend the range of Wi-Fi signals to the wearer’s mobile phone. We also made mats
and bedsheets that monitor infants’ height to screen for a range of early childhood
medical conditions. And we’ve made foldable antennas that measure how much a
surface the fabric is on has bent or lifted.
My lab is also working with other Ohio State researchers, including chemist Anne
Co and physician Chandan Sen, to make flexible fabric-based miniature power
generators.
We use a process much like inkjet printing to place alternating regions of silver and
zinc dots on the fabric. When those metals come into contact with sweat, saline or
even fluid discharges from wounds, silver acts as the positive electrode and zinc
serves as the negative electrode—and electricity flows between them.
We have generated small amounts of electricity just by getting the fabric damp—
without the need for any additional circuits or components. It’s a fully flexible,
washable power source that can connect with other wearable electronics, eliminating
the need for conventional batteries.
Both together and individually, these flexible, wearable electronics will transform
clothing into connected, sensing, communicating devices that mesh well with the
fabric of the interconnected 21st century.
MO VI N G BE Y O N D THE A N T E N N A
3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/embroidering-electronics-into-the-next-generation-of-smart-fabrics/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=… 6/9
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
AB O U T THE A U THO R(S)
Asimina Kiourti
Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University.
The Conversation US
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3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
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3/13/2018 Embroidering Electronics into the Next Generation of “Smart” Fabrics – Scientific American
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3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 1/6

TECHNOLOGY
How Calls for Privacy May Upend
Business for Facebook and Google
By DAVID STREITFELD, NATASHA SINGER and STEVEN ERLANGER MARCH 24, 2018
SAN FRANCISCO — The contemporary internet was built on a bargain: Show us
who you really are and the digital world will be free to search or share.
People detailed their interests and obsessions on Facebook and Google,
generating a river of data that could be collected and harnessed for advertising. The
companies became very rich. Users seemed happy. Privacy was deemed obsolete, like
bloodletting and milkmen.
Now, the consumer surveillance model underlying Facebook and Google’s free
services is under siege from users, regulators and legislators on both sides of the
Atlantic. It amounts to a crisis for an internet industry that up until now had taken a
reactive, whack-a-mole approach to problems like the spread of fraudulent news and
misuse of personal data.
The recent revelation that Cambridge Analytica, a voter profiling company that
had worked with Donald J. Trump’s presidential campaign, harvested data from 50
million Facebook users, raised the current uproar, even if the origins lie as far back
as the 2016 election. It has been many months of allegations and arguments that the
internet in general and social media in particular are pulling society down instead of
lifting it up.
3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 2/6
That has inspired a good deal of debate about more restrictive futures for
Facebook and Google. At the furthest extreme, some dream of the companies
becoming public utilities. More benign business models that depend less on ads and
more on subscriptions have been proposed, although it’s unclear why either
company would abandon something that has made them so prosperous.
Congress might pass targeted legislation to restrict consumer data use in
specific sectors, such as a Senate bill that would require increased transparency in
online political advertising, said Daniel J. Weitzner, director of the Internet Policy
Research Initiative at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
There are other avenues still, said Jascha Kaykas-Wolff, the chief marketing officer
of Mozilla, the nonprofit organization behind the popular Firefox browser, including
advertisers and large tech platforms collecting vastly less user data and still
effectively customizing ads to consumers.
“They are just collecting all the data to try to find magic growth algorithms,” Mr.
Kaykas-Wolff said of online marketers. This past week, Mozilla halted its ads on
Facebook, saying the social network’s default privacy settings allowed access to too
much data.
The greatest likelihood is that the internet companies, frightened by the tumult,
will accept a few more rules and work a little harder for transparency. And there will
be hearings on Capitol Hill.
The next chapter is also set to play out not in Washington but in Europe, where
regulators have already cracked down on privacy violations and are examining the
role of data in online advertising.
The Cambridge Analytica case, said Vera Jourova, the European Union
commissioner for justice, consumers and gender equality, was not just a breach of
private data. “This is much more serious, because here we witness the threat to
democracy, to democratic plurality,” she said.
Although many people had a general understanding that free online services
used their personal details to customize the ads they saw, the latest controversy
3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 3/6
starkly exposed the machinery.
Consumers’ seemingly benign activities — their likes — could be used to covertly
categorize and influence their behavior. And not just by unknown third parties.
Facebook itself has worked directly with presidential campaigns on ad targeting,
describing its services in a company case study as “influencing voters.”
“People are upset that their data may have been used to secretly influence 2016
voters,” said Alessandro Acquisti, a professor of information technology and public
policy at Carnegie Mellon University. “If your personal information can help sway
elections, which affects everyone’s life and societal well-being, maybe privacy does
matter after all.”
In interviews, Mr. Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook’s chief operating
officer, seemed to accept the possibility of increased privacy regulation, something
that would have been unlikely only a few months ago. But some trade group
executives also warned that any attempt to curb the use of consumer data would put
the business model of the ad-supported internet at risk.
“You’re undermining a fundamental concept in advertising: reaching consumers
who are interested in a particular product,” said Dean C. Garfield, chief executive of
the Information Technology Industry Council, a trade group in Washington whose
members include Amazon, Facebook, Google and Twitter.
If suspicion of Facebook and Google is a relatively new feeling in the United
States, it has been embedded in Europe for historical and cultural reasons that date
back to the Nazi Gestapo, the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe and the Cold War.
“We’re at an inflection point, when the great wave of optimism about tech is
giving way to growing alarm,” said Heather Grabbe, director of the Open Society
European Policy Institute. “This is the moment when Europeans turn to the state for
protection and answers, and are less likely than Americans to rely on the market to
sort out imbalances.”
In May, the European Union is instituting a comprehensive new privacy law,
called the General Data Protection Regulation. The new rules treat personal data as
3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 4/6
proprietary, owned by an individual, and any use of that data must be accompanied
by permission — opting in rather than opting out — after receiving a request written
in clear language, not legalese.
Mélanie Voin, a spokeswoman for the European Commission, said the
protection rules will have more teeth than the current 1995 directive. For example, a
company experiencing a data breach involving individuals must notify the data
protection authority within 72 hours and would be subject to fines of up to 20
million euros or 4 percent of its annual revenue.
In a January speech in Brussels, Facebook’s Ms. Sandberg said, “We know we
can’t just meet the G.D.P.R., but we need to do even more.” Google declined to
comment.
The United States does not have a consumer privacy law like the General Data
Protection Regulation. But after years of pushing for similar legislation, privacy
groups said that recent events were giving them new momentum — and they were
looking to Europe for inspiration.
“With the new European law, regulators for the first time have real enforcement
tools,” said Jeffrey Chester, the executive director of the Center for Digital
Democracy, a nonprofit group in Washington. “We now have a way to hold these
companies accountable.”
But any ambitions for new rules may run into the realities of the tech industry.
Privacy advocates and even some United States regulators have long been
concerned about the ability of online services to track consumers and make
inferences about their financial status, health concerns and other intimate details to
show them behavior-based ads. They warned that such microtargeting could unfairly
categorize or exclude certain people.
In 2010, for instance, the Federal Trade Commission proposed a new option for
consumers, called Do Not Track. Two years later, the Barack Obama administration
introduced a blueprint for a Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights, intended to give
3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 5/6
Americans more control over what personal details companies collected from them
and how the data was used.
But the Do Not Track effort and the privacy bill were both stymied.
Industry groups successfully argued that collecting personal details posed no
harm to consumers and that efforts to hinder data collection would chill innovation.
Instead, the advertising industry created a program to allow consumers to opt out of
having their data used for customized ads, although it does not allow people to
entirely opt out of having their data collected.
“If it can be shown that the current situation is actually a market failure and not
an individual-company failure, then there’s a case to be made for federal regulation”
under certain circumstances, said Randall Rothenberg, chief executive of the
Interactive Advertising Bureau, a trade group.
The business practices of Facebook and Google were reinforced by the fact that
no privacy flap lasted longer than a news cycle or two. Nor did people flee for other
services. That convinced the companies that digital privacy was a dead issue.
If the current furor dies down without meaningful change, critics worry that the
problems might become even more entrenched. When the tech industry follows its
natural impulses, it becomes even less transparent.
That would hamper any long-term understanding of the relationship between
social media and political views, an urgent question in Germany, Myanmar, Sri
Lanka, the United States and many other places.
“To know the real interaction between populism and Facebook, you need to give
much more access to researchers, not less,” said Paul-Jasper Dittrich, a German
research fellow in digital economy at the Jacques Delors Institute.
There’s another reason Silicon Valley tends to be reluctant to share information
about what it is doing. It believes so deeply in itself that it does not even think there
is a need for discussion. The technology world’s remedy for any problem is always
more technology.
3/26/2018 How Calls for Privacy May Upend Business for Facebook and Google – The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/24/technology/google-facebook-data-privacy.html 6/6
“If Facebook and Google were merely interested in maximizing profits, we could
regulate them,” said Maciej Ceglowski, who runs Tech Solidarity, a labor advocacy
group. “But well-intentioned people can break things not easy to fix. It’s like a child
running a bulldozer. They don’t have any sense of the damage they can do.”
Follow David Streitfeld, Natasha Singer and Steven Erlanger on Twitter:
@DavidStreitfeld and @natashanyt and @StevenErlanger
David Streitfeld reported from San Francisco, Natasha Singer from New York and
Steven Erlanger from Brussels. Milan Schreuer contributed research and reporting.
A version of this article appears in print on March 25, 2018, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the
headline: Call for Privacy Hands a Crisis To Tech Giants.
© 2018 The New York Times Company
1/8/2018 iPhones and Children Are a Toxic Pair, Say Two Big Apple Investors – WSJ
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iphones-and-children-are-a-toxic-pair-say-two-big-apple-investors-1515358834 1/3
The iPhone has made Apple Inc. and Wall Street hundreds of billions of dollars.
Now some big shareholders are asking at what cost, in an unusual campaign to make the
company more socially responsible.
A leading activist investor and a pension fund are saying the smartphone maker needs to
respond to what some see as a growing public-health crisis of youth phone addiction.
Jana Partners LLC and the California State Teachers’ Retirement System, or Calstrs, which
control about $2 billion of Apple shares, sent a letter to Apple on Saturday urging it to develop
new software tools that would help parents control and limit phone use more easily and to
study the impact of overuse on mental health.
The Apple push is a preamble to a
new several-billion-dollar fund
Jana is seeking to raise this year
to target companies it believes can
be better corporate citizens. It is
the first instance of a big Wall
Street activist seeking to profit
from the kind of social-responsibility campaign typically associated with a small fringe of
investors.
Adding splash, rock star Sting and his wife, Trudie Styler, will be on an advisory board along
with Sister Patricia A. Daly, a nun who successfully fought Exxon Mobil Corp. over
environmental disclosures, and Robert Eccles, an expert on sustainable investing.
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https://www.wsj.com/articles/iphones­and­children­are­a­toxic­pair­say­two­big­apple­investors­1515358834
MARKETS
iPhones and Children Are a Toxic Pair, Say
Two Big Apple Investors
Two activist shareholders wantApple to develop tools and research eects
on young people of
smartphone overuse and addiction
Teens took a group selie
with a smartphone in New York’s Times Square on Dec. 1. PHOTO: DREW ANGERERGETTY
IMAGES
Updated Jan. 7, 2018 728
p.m. ET
By David Benoit
AAPL -0.17% ▲
RELATED
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1/8/2018 iPhones and Children Are a Toxic Pair, Say Two Big Apple Investors – WSJ
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iphones-and-children-are-a-toxic-pair-say-two-big-apple-investors-1515358834 2/3
The Apple campaign would be unusual for an activist like Jana, which normally urges
companies to make financial changes. But the investors believe that Apple’s highflying stock
could be hurt in coming decades if it faces a backlash and that proactive moves could generate
goodwill and keep consumers loyal to Apple brands.
“Apple can play a defining role in signaling to the industry that paying special attention to the
health and development of the next generation is both good business and the right thing to do,”
the shareholders wrote in the letter, a copy of which was reviewed by The Wall Street Journal.
“There is a developing consensus around the world including Silicon Valley that the potential
long-term consequences of new technologies need to be factored in at the outset, and no
company can outsource that responsibility.”
Obsessive teenage smartphone usage has sparked a debate among academics, parents and even
the people who helped create the iPhone.
Some have raised concerns about increased rates in teen depression and suicide and worry that
phones are replacing old-fashioned human interaction. It is part of a broader re-evaluation of
the effects on society of technology companies such as Google and Amazon.com Inc. and socialmedia
companies like Facebook Inc. and Snap chat owner Snap Inc., which are facing questions
about their reach into everyday life.
Apple hasn’t offered any public guidance to parents on how to manage children’s smartphone
use or taken a position on at what age they should begin using iPhones.
Apple and its rivals point to features that give parents some measure of control. Apple, for
instance, gives parents the ability to choose which apps, content and services their children can
access.
The basic idea behind socially responsible investing is that good corporate citizenship can also
be good business. Big investors and banks, including TPG, UBS Group AG and Goldman Sachs
Group Inc. are making bets on socially responsible companies, boosting what they see as good
actors and avoiding bad ones.
Big-name activists increasingly view bad environmental, social or governance policies as red
flags. Jana plans to go further, putting its typical tools to work to drive change that may not
immediately pay off.
Apple is an ambitious first target: The combined Jana-Calstrs stake is relatively small given
Apple’s nearly $900 billion market value. Still, in recent years Apple has twice faced activists
demanding it pare its cash holdings, and both times the company ceded some ground.
Chief Executive Tim Cook has led Apple’s efforts to be a more socially responsible company, for
instance on environmental and immigration issues, and said in an interview with the New York
Times last year that Apple has a “moral responsibility” to help the U.S. economy.
Two teenage boys use smartphones in Vail, Colo., in June 2017. PHOTO: ROBERT ALEXANDERGETTY
IMAGES
1/8/2018 iPhones and Children Are a Toxic Pair, Say Two Big Apple Investors – WSJ
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iphones-and-children-are-a-toxic-pair-say-two-big-apple-investors-1515358834 3/3
Apple has shown willingness to use software to address potentially negative consequences of
phone usage. Amid rising concerns about distracted driving, the company last year updated its
software with a “do not disturb while driving” feature, which enables the iPhone to detect when
someone is behind the wheel and automatically silence notifications.
The iPhone is the backbone of a business that generated $48.35 billion in profit in fiscal 2017. It
helped turn Apple into the world’s largest publicly listed company by market value, and
anticipation of strong sales of its latest model, the iPhone X, helped its stock rise 50% in the
past year. Apple phones made up 43% of U.S. smartphones in use in 2016, according to
comScore , and an estimated 86 million Americans over age 13 own an iPhone.
Jana and Calstrs are working with Jean M. Twenge of San Diego State University, who
chronicled the problem of what she has dubbed the “iGen” in a book that was previewed in a
widely discussed article in the Atlantic magazine last fall, and with Michael Rich of Harvard
Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital, known as “the mediatrician” for his work on the
impact of media on children.
The investors believe both the content and the amount of time spent on phones need to be
tailored to youths, and they are raising concern about the public-health effects of failing to
act. They point to research from Ms. Twenge and others about a “growing body of evidence” of
“unintentional negative side effects,” including studies showing concerns from teachers. That
is one reason Calstrs was eager to support the campaign, according to the letter.
The group wants Apple to help find solutions to questions like what is optimal usage and to be
at the forefront of the industry’s response—before regulators or consumers potentially force it
to act.
The investors say Apple should make it easier and more intuitive for parents to set up usage
limits, which could head off any future moves to proscribe smartphones.
The question is “How can we apply the same kind of public-health science to this that we do to,
say, nutrition?” Dr. Rich said in an interview. “We aren’t going to tell you never go to Mickey D’s,
but we are going to tell you what a Big Mac will do and what broccoli will do.”
(We’d like to hear from you: Is smartphone addiction among young people a public-health
concern? Should companies like Apple be held responsible for tackling the issue? Email us at
socialmedia@wsj.com with your comments.)
—Tripp Mickle and Betsy Morris contributed to this article.
Write to David Benoit at david.benoit@wsj.com
Appeared in the January 8, 2018, print edition as ‘Investors Prod Apple On Child iPhone Use.’
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1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/trust-in-digital-technology-will-be-the-internet-rsquo-s-next-frontier-for-2018-and-beyond/?print=true 1/9
C O M P U T I N G
Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next
Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond
Around the world people are both increasingly dependent on, and distrustful of, digital technology
By Bhaskar Chakravorti, The Conversation US on January 4, 2018
Credit: BahadirTanriover Getty Images
The following essay is reprinted with permission from The Conversation, an online
publication covering the latest research.
After decades of unbridled enthusiasm—bordering on addiction – about all things
digital, the public may be losing trust in technology. Online information isn’t reliable,
whether it appears in the form of news, search results or user reviews. Social media,
in particular, is vulnerable to manipulation by hackers or foreign powers. Personal
data isn’t necessarily private. And people are increasingly worried about automation
and artificial intelligence taking humans’ jobs.
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
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Yet, around the world, people are both increasingly dependent on, and distrustful of,
digital technology. They don’t behave as if they mistrust technology. Instead, people
are using technological tools more intensively in all aspects of daily life. In recent
research on digital trust in 42 countries (a collaboration between Tufts University’s
Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, where I work, and Mastercard), my colleagues
and I found that this paradox is a global phenomenon.
If today’s technology giants don’t do anything to address this unease in an
environment of growing dependence, people might start looking for more trustworthy
companies and systems to use. Then Silicon Valley’s powerhouses could see their
business boom go bust.
Some of the concerns have to do with how big a role the technology companies and
their products play in people’s lives. U.S. residents already spend 10 hours a day in
front of a screen of some kind. One in 5 Americans say they are online “almost
constantly.” The tech companies have enormous reach and power. More than 2 billion
people use Facebook every month.
Ninety percent of search queries worldwide go through Google. Chinese e-retailer,
Alibaba, organizes the biggest shopping event worldwide every year on Nov. 11, which
this year brought in US$25.3 billion in revenue, more than twice what U.S. retailers
sold between Thanksgiving and Cyber Monday last year.
This results in enormous wealth. All six companies in the world worth more than
$500 billion are tech firms. The top six most sought-after companies to work for are
also in tech. Tech stocks are booming, in ways reminiscent of the giddy days of
A D VE R TI SEMENT
E C O N OMI C P OWER
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
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the dot-com bubble of 1997 to 2001. With emerging technologies, including the
“internet of things,” self-driving cars, blockchain systems and artificial intelligence,
tempting investors and entrepreneurs, the reach and power of the industry is only
likely to grow.
This is particularly true because half the world’s population is still not online. But
networking giant Cisco projects that 58 percent of the world will be online by 2021,
and the volume of internet traffic per month per user will grow 150 percent from 2016
to 2021.
All these users will be deciding on how much to trust digital technologies.
Even now, the reasons for collective unease about technology are piling up.
Consumers are learning to be worried about the security of their personal
information: News about a data breach involving 57 million Uber accounts follows on
top of reports of a breach of the 145.5 million consumer data records on Equifax and
every Yahoo account – 3 billion in all.
Russia was able to meddle with Facebook, Google and Twitter during the 2016
election campaign. That has raised concerns about whether the openness and reach of
digital media is a threat to the functioning of democracies.
Another technological threat to society comes from workplace automation. The
management consulting firm, McKinsey, estimates that it could displace one-third of
the U.S. workforce by 2030, even if a different set of technologies create new “gig”
opportunities.
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D ATA, D EMO CRAC Y A N D THE D AY J O B
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/trust-in-digital-technology-will-be-the-internet-rsquo-s-next-frontier-for-2018-and-beyond/?print=true 4/9
The challenge for tech companies is that they operate in global markets and the extent
to which these concerns affect behaviors online varies significantly around the world.
Our research uncovers some interesting differences in behaviors across geographies.
In areas of the world with smaller digital economies and where technology use is still
growing rapidly, users tend to exhibit more trusting behaviors online. These users are
more likely to stick with a website even if it loads slowly, is hard to use or requires
many steps for making an online purchase. This could be because the experience is
still novel and there are fewer convenient alternatives either online or offline.
In the mature digital markets of Western Europe, North America, Japan and South
Korea, however, people have been using the internet, mobile phones, social media
and smartphone apps for many years. Users in those locations are less trusting, prone
to switching away from sites that don’t load rapidly or are hard to use, and
abandoning online shopping carts if the purchase process is too complex.
Because people in more mature markets have less trust, I would expect tech
companies to invest in trust-building in more mature digital markets. For instance,
they might speed up and streamline processing of e-commerce transactions and
payments, or more clearly label the sources of information presented on social media
sites, as the Trust Project is doing, helping to identify authenticated and reliable news
sources.
Consider Facebook’s situation. In response to criticism for allowing fake Russian
accounts to distribute fake news on its site, CEO Mark Zuckerberg boldly declared
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MAT U RE MAR K E TS D IFF ER FR OM EMER G I N G
O N E S
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
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that, “Protecting our community is more important than maximizing our profits.”
However, according to the company’s chief financial officer, Facebook’s 2018
operating expenses could increase by 45 to 60 percent if it were to invest significantly
in building trust, such as hiring more humans to review posts and developing
artificial intelligence systems to help them. Those costs would lower Facebook’s
profits.
To strike a balance between profitability and trustworthiness, Facebook will have to
set priorities and deploy advanced trust-building technologies (e.g. vetting locally
generated news and ads) in only some geographic markets.
As the boundaries of the digital world expand, and more people become familiar with
internet technologies and systems, their distrust will grow. As a result, companies
seeking to enjoy consumer trust will need to invest in becoming more trustworthy
more widely around the globe. Those that do will likely see a competitive advantage,
winning more loyalty from customers.
This risks creating a new type of digital divide. Even as one global inequality
disappears—more people have an opportunity to go online—some countries or
regions may have significantly more trustworthy online communities than others.
Especially in the less-trustworthy regions, users will need governments to enact
strong digital policies to protect people from fake news and fraudulent scams, as well
as regulatory oversight to protect consumers’ data privacy and human rights.
All consumers will need to remain on guard against overreach by heavy-handed
authorities or autocratic governments, particularly in parts of the world where
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THE F U T U RE O F D I G ITAL D ISTR U ST
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/trust-in-digital-technology-will-be-the-internet-rsquo-s-next-frontier-for-2018-and-beyond/?print=true 6/9
consumers are new to using technology and, therefore, more trusting. And they’ll
need to keep an eye on companies, to make sure they invest in trust-building more
evenly around the world, even in less mature markets. Fortunately, digital technology
makes watchdogs’ work easier, and also can serve as a megaphone—such as on social
media—to issue alerts, warnings or praise.
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
AB O U T THE A U THO R(S)
Bhaskar Chakravorti
Bhaskar Chakravorti is a Senior Associate Dean, International Business & Finance, Tufts
University.
The Conversation US
A D VE R TI SEMENT
1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
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1/9/2018 Trust in Digital Technology Will Be the Internet’s Next Frontier, for 2018 and Beyond – Scientific American
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12/20/2017 Why We Can’t Stop Texting and Driving | Time
http://time.com/5059457/stop-texting-and-driving/ 1/4
Why We Can’t Stop Texting and Driving
By STEVE CASNER December 18, 2017
IDEAS Steve Casner is a research psychologist and the author of Careful: A User’s Guide to
Our Injury-Prone Minds.
Once smartphones arrived in the hands of the masses, it didn’t take long for drivers
to start using them behind the wheel — not only to make calls, but also to send text
messages. Even more alarming: studies showed that the presence of passengers,
even child passengers, didn’t seem to deter drivers from using their shiny new toys.
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12/20/2017 Why We Can’t Stop Texting and Driving | Time
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Distracted driving crashes began to spike, safety campaigns were launched, and now
the warnings are everywhere. Signs, billboards, stickers, television and radio ads,
even paid search results. The messages use every imaginable hook: statistics, tragic
stories, disturbing crash pictures, even analogies between smartphones, booze and
guns.
But 10 years later, as the crash numbers continue to rise, we’re realizing that the
safety campaigns have produced humble results. Recent follow-up studies show that,
despite our efforts to curb the practice, drivers in the U.S. use their phones on
roughly 88% of all trips and more than half of all young drivers reported engaging in
hands-on, head-down reading or typing during the past 30 days. As one journalist
summarized these findings about who’s still using their phone in the car: “Damn
near everybody … damn near all the time.”
Drivers ignore the warnings and continue to use their phones for a simple reason:
they’re just not convinced that it’s all that dangerous. To understand why, we need
to reflect on how humans evaluate risk. When going about our everyday affairs, we
use our common sense and our experience to guide us. The first time we have what
feels like an urgent text or email to answer while driving, we give it a shot and see
how it goes. After a few tries, it seems to work out just fine. After all, when we’re
using our phone, we think that if something unusual happens right before our very
eyes, we’re going to notice it. Even when we go head-down to text or use an app, we
know that we can switch our attention between road and phone, and that we can
look up more frequently when we notice that traffic is getting worse. When we’re
stopped at a red light, we can pick up our phone and then put it back down again
when the light turns green. These are the powerful common sense notions that guide
us through everyday life on the road.
The problem with these common sense notions is that for the most part they’re
wrong. Despite our intuitions to the contrary, our attention will not be instantly
grabbed by that disaster unfolding in front of us even when we’re looking in that
direction. A famous experiment involving a gorilla illustrated how we’re really not
good at noticing things that we’re not specifically looking for, and that having our
eyes pointed at something is only the first step toward “seeing” it. But what about
looking up from our phone more frequently when traffic gets thick? Unfortunately,
12/20/2017 Why We Can’t Stop Texting and Driving | Time
http://time.com/5059457/stop-texting-and-driving/ 3/4
our common sense notions don’t reflect how deeply entrenched we get when we’re
engaged in something interesting. When the latest news pops up on our phone,
sometimes we’re a little distracted and sometimes we’re gone. Driving studies
demonstrate that us noticing when traffic gets worse is far from a guarantee and that
sometimes when we pick up our phones we’re not even consciously aware that we’re
doing it. But how about texting at the light? What could possibly be wrong with that?
Well, when we put down our phones and return our attention to the driving task, it
can actually take almost a half a minute for our brains to reorient and resume
processing what our eyes are looking at once again.
The time has come to address this problem at its source. We need to realign our
common sense notions with the truth about our powerful, creative but sometimes
fallible minds. We need to understand that our attention-paying abilities amount to
something less than a swivel-mounted, multidirectional surveillance apparatus. That
we err and miss things a bit more often than we care to admit. And that the hazards
presented by our newest of innovations can be subtle, hidden, or even invisible — far
outstripping our abilities to reason about them in simple ways.
But how do we get millions of people to study the user’s guide to their own injuryprone
minds? We’ll have to launch safety campaigns to orient us to the very idea that
our minds simply don’t work the way we think they do. We’ll have to train parents to
provide the psychological rationale behind their advice and admonitions to children.
We’ll have to convince schools to teach our kids the basics of how our fallible minds
work. Manufacturers of cars and phones alike will need to better foresee misuses
that spring from our erroneous beliefs, and provide more detailed warnings about
how things might go wrong when lockout safety features aren’t possible.
We have reached a technological tipping point. These are not problems we will be
able to ignore for much longer. Aside from the rising distracted driving statistics, we
will continue to invent new technologies that will stretch our common sense notions
to their limits and beyond. Soon we will have wearable devices that allow us to look
out at the “real world” through layers of augmented reality. Autonomous cars won’t
save us. Some experts say that it might be another 75 years before we have the robot
car that we’re all dreaming about today. And when we finally do, what will prevent a
distracted pedestrian from stepping out in front of one? We will have to make our
12/20/2017 Why We Can’t Stop Texting and Driving | Time
http://time.com/5059457/stop-texting-and-driving/ 4/4
move soon — a move beyond hanging a sign on the wall or a billboard by the side of
the road. Our more sophisticated world will demand a more sophisticated
understanding of ourselves.
IDEAS
TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices, providing commentary on events in news, society, and
culture. We welcome outside contributions. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of
TIME editors.

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