Human Biology 102
These essays will require some out of book research to fully apply what you have
learned during the semester. If you are unsure about the quality of the information
you are getting from any source feel free to ask your instructor. These essays are
due the day of the final.
The sickle cell allele is an example of a co-dominant gene found on chromosome 11. Those
who are homozygous for sickled cell disease has a mutation in their DNA causing the third
amino acid in the B-globin go from Glu to Val. This blood disorder causes all their
hemoglobin to take on a sickle shape *see image above*. This leads to anemia, infection,
pain attacks, stroke, spleen damage, liver damage, slowed growth, delayed puberty and
early death. Having sickle cells also makes the blood cell immune to malaria infection.
Malaria is caused by protozoan of the genus Plasmodium. Infection begins with a bite from
an infected mosquito. The parasite travels from the mosquito to your liver, where the
parasite begins to reproduce. The parasite leaves the liver and travels to the bloodstream,
where it infects red blood cells eventually destroying them. Malaria
The graph below shows the distribution of sickle cell allele in Africa and the distribution of
malaria in Africa.
Human Biology 102
You should be able to answer the following questions about this scenario.
You should be able to…
Describe the importance of oxygen to our body? (Cell Resp.)
Explain where the primary source of oxygen comes from. (Photosynthesis)
Describe the form and function of RBC and how sickle cell anemia changes that.
Describe how sickle cell anemia results in malaria inhibition.
Describe how blood acquires and delivers oxygen through the body. (Cardio)
Explain how this changes when the cells are sickled?
Describe the link between sickle cell and symptoms.
You should be able to…..
Explain how two relatively healthy adults can have a child with sickle cell anemia?
Describe how the mutant gene causes a sickled cell. (Protein synthesis)
Explain how this environment influences phenotype variation within a population, but
does not cause it. Be sure to explain how the possible phenotype variations may increase or
decrease the fitness of the people within the population. Be specific with this example.
Hypothesize why some areas on the map above have sickle cell genes while others
do not. (What evolutionary pressures could be at play?) Hypothesize why not all areas with
malaria have populations with sickle cell alleles (circled populations). What inductive
reasoning did you use to come up with that hypothesis (Justify your hypothesis)? Use
correct evolution terminology to explain. You should take into context the ecology of the
Describe the community level relationship between Malaria and Humans. (What
type of organisms are involved in the transmittance of Malaria?)
You should be able to research……
Malaria is still an issue throughout Africa how are some ways we are combatting the
transmittance? (Pre-infection and Post-infection). Did you use reliable resources?*

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