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First, read Kramsch, and, secondly, respond to the following question about Saussure, Gumperz, and Sapir. All responses should be a least one paragraph in length
1. What do you think Saussure means by saying that ‘language is not complete in any speaker, it exists perfectly only within a collectivivty’?
2. Explain what Gumperz and Levinson mean in this context by the phrase ‘the phenomenology of struggling with a second language,’ and that would support the principle of linguistic relativity.
3. How far is Sapir’s view here consistent with the remarks in Gumperz and Levinson that ‘there is a strand of common sense that insists that a stone is a stone whatever you call it’? How common is common sense?