Hi im really tired 2nite this is actually due by 1150 pm 2nite it would be nice

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Hi
im really tired 2nite this is actually due by 1150 pm 2nite it would be nice to
have it b4 then since its only a responses
Respond to two colleagues by providing feedback on their
choice of population, sample, and sampling technique. How do their choices fit
with the research question and research methodological approach?
Please use the Learning Resources
and the NASW Code of Ethics to support your response (i.e., cite and
reference).
RESEARCH QUESTION
The research question for my proposed study is: How does
comorbidity affect the personal lives of elderly COVID-19 patients admitted to
the intensive care unit? The methodological approach that will be used is the
qualitative method as the study will delve into the personal experiences of the
research participants, data obtained through several sources like in-depth
personal interviews, focus group discussions, and informal conversations. The
collected data will then be summarized and analyzed.
POPULATION, SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Population, according to Yegidis, et al,( 2018), is the entire
group that is intended to be studied and conclusion drawn from  depending
on the scope of the study, while sample as a subset of population, is the
smaller group that data is collected from, i.e. the actual research
participants that are representative of the population. Based on the
aforementioned definitions and my research question, the population relevant to
my study are elderly patients diagnosed with COVID-19, who suffer from other
illnesses and admitted to the intensive care unit. With regards to the sample,
40 participants will be chosen using the purposeful or selective
non-probability sampling technique. This means participants will be selected
based on criteria in a nonrandom manner and will be recruited on the basis that
they can provide in-depth and detailed information about the phenomena being
discussed. For this study, elderly COVID-19 patients with comorbidities who
were hospitalized will be selected to talk about their personal experiences and
how their lives were impacted.  Even though this technique is selective,
it will provide the needed answers to my research question and offers
opportunities to choose participants that can provide best answers.
ETHICAL AND CULTURAL CONCERNS
In the conduct of a research, various ethical and cultural
concerns must be addressed as stated in the National Association of Social
Workers Code of Ethics 2018. Section 1.05(2) states: ‘Social workers should
have a knowledge base of their clients’ cultures and be able to demonstrate
cultural competence in the provision of services that are sensitive to clients’
cultures and to differences among people and cultural groups’. Some of the
ethical and cultural concerns that need to be addressed when working with the
elder population include ageism, stereotype and elder abuse. Social workers
must be aware of the negative impacts on age-based stereotypes and
discrimination like linking age to mental and physical decline. This may likely
impact the research if the researchers are unfamiliar with dealing with the
older population. It is not uncommon for the older population to be subjected
to negative stereotypes with regards to their age, mental or physical
competencies and these must be addressed to prevent potential threats to the
validity of the research. Elder abuse is another ethical concern that must be
addressed as the older population is sometimes subjected to abuse from
caregivers. In this regard, researchers must be aware of mandatory reporting in
all institutions, local or state laws
Top of Form
Research question and methodological approach
My research question is: what strategies are effective in
recruiting new people into mental health fields in order to reduce the mental
health provider shortage in rural areas? My methodological approach is
qualitative. I am interested in looking at what providers who are currently in
the field think would be effective in recruiting people into the mental health
field in rural areas, and would stay in those rural areas. While my question
could potentially be examined from a quantitative approach, I’m interested in
what mental health providers who are currently living and practicing in rural
areas think would be effective because they are likely the people who have the
best idea as to why there is such a shortage. 
Population
The population that I’ll be seeking input from would include
mental health providers who live in rural areas that have a reported shortage
in mental health providers. To ensure that I’m working with providers from
these areas, I’ll utilize data from the United States Health Resources and
Services Administration (United States Department of Health and Human Services,
n.d.) website that helps locate shortage areas. 
Sample size
I am honestly a bit unsure about what my sample size may be, I
believe that gathering information from 30 mental health providers in rural
areas that have a mental health provider shortage would be sufficient. I could
stick to mental health providers in my area, say I utilize an area within a two
hours radius of me that only includes providers in the geographic areas that
are considered a mental health provider shortage area but are also rural.
“Rural” is proving to be a difficult word to define in regards to population
size and density. Some suburb areas are considered rural depending on which
definition is utilized. The studies that I examined in my literature review
mostly chose to define rural based on what specific areas labeled themselves
as, or how they were labeled by the United States government. 
Sampling technique
Most qualitative studies utilize purposive sampling and I believe
that would be the best sampling technique for my study as well (Walden
University, n.d.). I would utilize purposive sampling because I believe that
mental health providers who are currently working in the field in rural areas
have a great idea about what it takes to be a provider in this over-worked area
and they likely have thought about, discussed or even researched ideas for
helping with the shortage themselves. I debated using expert sampling (which falls
under the purposive sampling category), however have decided against it. Expert
sampling requires the researcher to choose participants based on them having
expertise in the area(s) that they’re researching (Yegidis et. al., 2018). I
decided against it because while I think that those who are considered
“experts” in the field of mental health in rural areas are likely people who
have been in mental health for a considerable amount of time, the door must be
open to newer practitioners to understand their experience(s) becoming a mental
health provider in a rural area. I worry that utilizing the expert sampling
technique may be confusing in regards to what “expert” means, even if defined
as part of the study. 
Ethical and cultural concerns 
The ethical concerns that I see for working with mental health
providers in rural areas concerns anonymity and ensuring that nothing is said
that can be led back to an individual who participates that may impact their
job negatively in any way. Rural areas are fraught with privacy issues to begin
with. The whole topic of my research is a lack of providers in rural areas.
This points to there being potentially one mental health provider in a town of
1500 and depending on what information is provided, their identity may be easy
to discover based on what information is shared and how it is shared. The
National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics (2021)
includes a section that states that anonymity and/or confidentiality must be
provided to participants and any information that they provide when social
workers are conducting research or evaluations. Walden University Office of
Research and Doctoral Services (n.d.) also includes a section on
confidentiality that pertains to this as well. If something a participant says
could be used against them, even if their comment wasn’t intended in a
malicious or out of place manner, the researcher must consider whether using
this information would be appropriate especially in relation to the small
number of participants in the rural areas. However, neither of these would
prohibit me from working with these mental health providers. I would need to
ensure that I inform those who are willing to participate that it is possible
that they could be identified based on their answers, and give them an
opportunity to withdraw, without pressure from me (the researcher). Also, the
Walden University red flags may seem to not pertain, I believe that my research
may fall in it because many employers now require employees to sign
confidentiality forms that prohibit them from discussing certain matters that
pertain to their business. 
Bottom of Form
POST1
Respond to two colleagues by offering additional insight
about how social workers can work toward assuring the best outcomes for
adolescents who are questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity.
Please use the Learning Resources to support your response.
Top of Form
There are numerous reactions that can come from an adolescent
questioning their sexual identity or gender role based on their social
environment.  Some of these reactions could be anger or
disappointment. For Adolescents who have a supportive social environment,
questioning gender identity or role may not be as daunting of a task as if you
do not have a supportive environment. Those who are unfortunate to not have the
support of family or peers tend to experience issues within their social
environment, which can consequently affect their behavior and self-esteem.
Negative reactions to questioning sexual identity or gender roles comes from
varies things such as religious beliefs, prejudices, and societal stereotypes.  This
affects a child’s social environment because they are at risk of being
rejected, excluded, and chastised by those in their social environment,
especially from close family members. Being outed by those in their social
environment a domino effect occurs, triggering changes behavior, self-esteem,
and psychopathological development (Mills-Koonce, Rehder, & McCurdy, 2018).
Because of the lack of support or maltreatment, adolescents develop resentment
and anger towards family and themselves. Results of this can cause irrational
behavior.  Fear of being harmed as well as minority stressors from
questioning of sexual identity or gender roles, can take a grave tole on a
child’s self-esteem. Being different from what the world sees as right or good
(societal norms) can also lead to low self-esteem. 
Roles I could play in ensuring the best outcomes for these
adolescents would be to simply be their advocate on all levels (micro, mezzo,
macro).  Advocacy for a client questioning sexual identity or gender
roles would be pushing for families, schools, and higher institutions to
promoting a safe space for these children (CDC, 2017).  Another role
I could assume would be a counselor. Helping the client navigate their issues,
questions, and concerns about themselves, as well as confront them can be
beneficial. 
Top of Form
Post 2
Adolescence is an important stage for evolving and developing.
This stage is when adolescents learn more about themselves. They begin to
identify what characteristics set them apart or part of their family and peers.
Adolescent development could also be challenging for families because parents
and youth are constantly evolving, and parent-child relationships are changing
(Mills-Koonce et al., 2018).
Most adolescents’ sexual identity development can be a continuous process that
starts before puberty and when children have attitudes and preferences about
sexual attractions and experiences. During the identity versus role confusion
stage, adolescents are figuring out who they are sexually and what their role
will mean in their environments. They explore who they are sexually and work
towards establishing a concrete sexual identity (Brandon-Freidman, 2019). When
adolescents identify their sexual identity, it’s more challenging for LGBT
youth who face a heteronormative society that enforces sexual and gender
expectations. The LGBT youth experience in coming out to family and friends can
go either positive or negative. Children have developed an attachment
relationship with their parents at a young age. Often when coming out to their
parents, they could face hostility, rejection, and fear their reactions.
Furthermore, their choice to conceal their identity can have immediate effects
limiting emotional and social support and causing future distress. Adolescents
do have the option of disclosing their sexual or gender identities to their
parents. In connection, it will influence the parent-child relationship. The
outcome process involves acceptance and support, which will be positive for the
adjustment for their feelings to be validated and secured trust
(Brandon-Freidman, 2019).
For a social worker, it is essential to support individuals by listening and
connecting them to resources that will help them. It is necessary to educate
the youth and continue to validate their feelings as they mauver to establish
their identity. As a social worker is essential to be aware and sensitive to
their experiences.

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