I need one answer to each peer, must include references
madonna: the center for disease control and prevention (CDC,n.d) stated that women’s risk of dying from smoking has more than tripled in the last 50 years, and is now equal to men’s risk. The United States has more than 20 million women and girls who currently smoke cigarettes. Smoking puts them at risk for healthcare issues such as heart attacks; strokes; lung cancer; emphysema; and other serious chronic illnesses including diabetes. More than 170,000 American women die of diseases caused by smoking each year, with additional deaths coming from the use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (CDC, n.d). According to CDC, women who are most likely to smoke today are the most vulnerable which include the low income, less educated, and those with mental health disorders. Today, more women die from lung cancer than breast cancer.
On another note, Jafari et, al (2021) reported that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among women has increased worldwide in recent years and is considered a public health concern. It is one of the most preventable causes of death from non-communicable diseases. The authors cited that smoking in women carries the risk of diseases such as cervical cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes, lung cancer, premature menopause, premature birth, abnormal fetal growth, low birth weight, miscarriage, and increases fetal death. Women who smoke before and during pregnancy increase the risk of preterm birth, abnormal fetal growth, low birth weight, miscarriage, and fetal death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) as cited by Jafari et, al (2021), one in ten deaths worldwide is caused by tobacco use; tobacco use worldwide causes 7 million deaths each year. If the world’s consumption patterns remain unchanged by 2030, 8 million people will die from tobacco-related diseases . Cigarette smoking kills 480,000 people in the USA each year and every year, about 201,773 women around the world die from secondhand smoke.
According to Prince George’s County Health Department (2017), tobacco product use varies in the county by race, ethnicity and age. The most recent report stated that smoking appears to be increasing in the county, among younger adults (ages 18-44 years). It appears to be decreasing in the county for those aged 45 years and older. Also the percentage of male to female who smoke is in the ratio of 9.4% : 4.2% in the state and then 6.6% : 3.9% in the county
Center for disease control and prevention (nd). Women And Smoking. Retrieved from, https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/50…
Jafari, A., Rajabi, A., Gholian-Aval, M., Peyman, N., Mahdizadeh, M., Tehrani, H (2021). National, regional, and global prevalence of cigarette smoking among women/females in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Prev Med. 26(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12199-020-00924-y. PMID: 33419408
Prince George’s County Health Department (2017). Tobacco Use in Prince George’s County. Retrieved from, https://www.princegeorgescountymd.gov/ArchiveCente…
Mary:Sexual orientation and gender identity are intrinsic aspects of every individual. Sexual orientation pertains to one’s romantic or physical attractions. Simultaneously, gender identity relates to one’s internal perception of being male or female or neither or a combination of both, separate from their biological sex. Those whose gender identity or sexual orientation diverges from the majority are encompassed within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender and queer (LGBTQ+) society. Identifying as LGBTQ+ does not indicate a mental disorder or illness (MHA, n.d).
LGBTQ+ and Mental Health
In the United States, 4.5 percent of adults identify as LGBTQ+, according to research. However, this percentage varies significantly across age groups, with 3.5 % of Gen X individuals (born between 1965 and 1979), compared to 8.2 % of Millennials (those born between 1980 and 1999) identifying as LGBTQ+. Furthermore, there is a gender disparity in LGBT identification, with women being more likely to identify as LGBTQ+ (5.1 percent) than men (3.9 percent). The challenges faced by LGBTQ+ individuals are underscored by research indicating that they confront health disparities stemming from discrimination, the failure to acknowledge their human and civil rights and societal stigma. The bias has been linked with elevated rates of substance use, suicide, and psychiatric disorders within the LGBTQ+ community. The societal, familial, and personal acceptance of gender identity and sexual orientation plays a crucial role in shaping the emotional safety and mental health of LGBTQ+ individuals.
Irrespective of age, a recent U.S. Census Bureau’s experimental Household Pulse Survey (HPS) analysis reveals that LGBTQ+ adults consistently reported increased levels of depression and anxiety signs and symptoms than their non-LGBTQ+ counterparts throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. This study builds upon prior Census Bureau investigations, which had already indicated that LGBTQ+ adults, whether living independently or with others, faced more significant mental health hurdles than their non-LGBTQ+ peers (Marlay et al., 2022). In the current research, this analysis is broadened to include an age-based comparison of LGBTQ+ and non-LGBTQ+ respondents, shedding additional light on the mental health disparities within these groups. Based on the research, it is evident that younger respondents, whether they identify as LGBTQ+ or non-LGBTQ+, experienced heightened difficulties with symptoms of both depression and anxiety. However, notably, it was the younger LGBTQ+ respondents who encountered the most substantial challenges in dealing with these mental health issues (Medina & Mahowald, 2022).
Overall, LGBTQ+ youth grapple with the societal stigma surrounding their sexual orientations or gender identities. This stigma manifests in various ways, including discrimination, harassment, familial estrangement, social exclusion, and violence. These encounters with adversity can jeopardize the well-being of the LGBTQ+ community, placing their mental health in peril. Similarly, during the coronavirus pandemic, LGBTQ+ adults have consistently reported increased symptoms related to depression and anxiety when compared to their non-LGBTQ+ peers. These findings remained consistent regardless of the timeframe under consideration.
File, T., & Marley, M., (2022), (2022). Regardless of Household Type, LGBT Adults Struggled More With Mental Health Than Non-LGBT Adults. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/06/lgbt-adults-report-anxiety-depression-during-pandemic.html
Marlay, M., File, T., & Scherer, Z., (2022). Mental Health Struggles Higher Among LGBT Adults Than Non-LGBT Adults in All Age Groups. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/12/lgbt-adults-report-anxiety-depression-at-all-ages.html
Medina, C., & Mahowald, L. (2022). Discrimination and Barriers to Well-Being: The State of the LGBTQI+ Community in 2022. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/discrimination-and-barriers-to-well-being-the-state-of-the-lgbtqi-community-in-2022/
Mental Health America (MHA), (n.d.). LGBTQ+ Communities and Mental Health. https://mhanational.org/issues/lgbtq-communities-and-mental-health
I need one answer to each peer, must include references