I need plagiarism , brought to a zero Culture from Nigeria and some other Africa

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I need plagiarism , brought to a zero
Culture from Nigeria and some other African countries.
Although considered a violation of human rights, female genital mutilation (FGM) is a commonly accepted practice in Nigeria in the ritual and sociocultural context of the population. In recent years, there have been strong policy actions by Nigerian legislature to curb this practice. Despite that, FGM continues to be a widespread phenomenon. In this study, we aimed to report on the prevalence of FGM, women’s attitude towards this practice, and its association with selected sociodemographic factors. In Nigeria, FGM remains a widely prevalent phenomenon with an increasing number of women experiencing this practice. Important regional and socioeconomic disparities were observed in the prevalence which merit urgent policy attention. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an internationally recognized issue owing to its adverse impacts on physical and psychosocial wellbeing and erosion of sexual and reproductive health rights among women. To date, no scientific evidence is available to demonstrate any therapeutic aspects of FGM. On the contrary, FGM has been reported to be associated with a host of complications by numerous studies, including clitoral cyst formation, hemorrhage, fistula, obstetric complications, urinary infections and retention, vaginal tears and psychological trauma. FGM represents a major concern to World Health Organization (WHO) agenda, and is identified in any of its forms as a serious violation of internationally accepted human rights for women by WHO, as well as various other advocates of human rights, including UNDP, UNICEF and UN Women (World Health Organization 1998, 2017). FGM is known to well over half of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates being reported in Somalia and Djibouti, where it is practiced virtually universally (Okeke et al. 2012). However, owing to its sheer population size (seventh largest population globally), Nigeria surpasses all other countries with its highest absolute number of women who are circumcised, accounting for about a quarter of all circumcised women worldwide (Okeke et al. 2012). The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities. The most commonly cited reasons are: Where FGM is a social convention (social norm), the social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing, as well as the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong motivations to perpetuate the practice. In some communities, FGM is almost universally performed and unquestioned. FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage. FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behaviour. It aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman’s libido and therefore believed to help her resist extramarital sexual acts. When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed (Type 3), the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM. Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out. FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are clean and beautiful after removal of body parts that are considered unclean, unfeminine or male. Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support. Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: some promote it, some consider it irrelevant to religion, and others contribute to its elimination. Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice. Likewise, when informed, they can be effective advocates for abandonment of FGM. In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement. FGM is widespread in Nigeria. Some sociocultural determinants have been identified as supporting this avoidable practice. FGM is still deeply entrenched in the Nigerian society where critical decision makers are grandmothers, mothers, women, opinion leaders, men and age groups.[15] FGM is an extreme example of discrimination based on sex. Often used as a way to control women’s sexuality, the practice is closely associated with girls’ marriageability.[16] Mothers chose to subject their daughters to the practice to protect them from being ostracized, beaten, shunned, or disgraced.[14,17] FGM was traditionally the specialization of traditional leaders’ traditional birth attendants or members of the community known for the trade. There is, however, the phenomenon of “medicalization” which has introduced modern health practitioners and community health workers into the trade.[15] The WHO is strongly against this medicalization and has advised that neither FGM must be institutionalized nor should any form of FGM be performed by any health professional in any setting, including hospitals or in the home setting.[15] It is true that tradition and culture are important aspects of any society in helping to mold the views and behavioral patterns of the society; some traditions and cultural beliefs and practices like FGM are harmful and must be abolished. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to tackle this deep-rooted legendary practice of FGM. There is a need for legislation in Nigeria with health education and female emancipation in the society. The process of social change in the community with a collective, coordinated agreement to abandon the practice “community-led action” is therefore essential.[18] With improvement in education and social status of women and increased awareness of complications of FGM, most women who underwent FGM disapprove of the practice and only very few are prepared to subject their daughters to such harmful procedures.[3] The more educated, more informed, and more active socially and economically a woman is, the more she is able to appreciate and understand the hazards of harmful practices like FGM and sees it as unnecessary procedure and refuses to accept such harmful practice and refuses to subject her daughter to such an operation. In 1994, Nigeria joined other members of the 47th World Health Assembly to resolve to eliminate FGM. Steps taken so far to achieve this include establishment of a multisectorial technical working group on harmful traditional practices (HTPs), conduct of various studies and national surveys on HTPs, launching of a regional plan of action, and formulation of a national policy and plan of action, which was approved by the Federal Executive Council for the elimination of FGM in Nigeria. In Nigeria, FGM is being tackled by WHO, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), and many women organizations. Intensification of education of the general public at all levels has been done with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM. In 1995, Platform of Action adopted by the Beijing conference called for the eradication of FGM through the enactment and enforcement of legislation against its perpetrator.[19] However, there is no federal law prohibiting the practice of FGM in Nigeria. This is the main reason for the slow progress on declining the prevalence of FGM. Despite the increased international and little national attention, the prevalence of FGM overall has declined very little.[14] The prevalence depends on the level of education and the geographic location.[20] At the grassroots, efforts should be taken to join in the crusade to say “NO” to FGM anywhere it is practiced among our people. It is crude, dangerous, wicked and unhealthy. FGM is not required by any religion and there is no scientific evidence that women who have been mutilated are more faithful or better wives than those who have not undergone the procedure.[15] It is very clear that there is no single benefit derived from FGM.

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