Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors

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Note : tis short report consist of two parts:
•    Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors
•    Effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 0
“This report is submitted to the School of Engineering and
Energy, Murdoch University in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Flat Plate Collector Efficiency
Laboratory for ENG441.”
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 1
1. Executive Summary
Flat Plate Collector (FPC) is widely used for domestic hot-water, space heating/drying and
for applications requiring fluid temperature less than 100 degree C. This report
demonstrates two significant objectives of this laboratory which are as follows:
 To Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors.
 To determine the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture.
In this lab experiment, two parts have been carried out which are as follow:
 Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
 Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
As a result of part one, black colour coating plat collector is better than composition plat
collector in terms of thermal energy absorbing. As a result of part two, 20° C tilt has higher
efficiency than 30° C with respect to the mass flow rate.
Good weather condition should to be taken into considerations in order to get better results
for this type of laboratories. Measuring the heat loss from flat plate collectors and
determining the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture are the main goals of
this laboratory which have been achieved.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 2
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………1
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
2. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
2.1 Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
2.2. Background………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
3. Experiment Requirements…………………………………………………………………………………………6
3.1. Used Equipment [1]…………………………………………………………………………………………..6
3.2. Supported Materials [1] ……………………………………………………………………………………..6
3. Laboratory Experiment Parts (Tasks)…………………………………………………………………………6
3.1. Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors……………………….7
3.1.1. Objective ……………………………………………………………………………………………………7
3.1.2. Methodology Background ……………………………………………………………………………7
3.1.3. Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
3.1.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)……………………………………………………………………..11
3.2. Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector. ……………………………………….12
3.2.1. Objective ………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2.2. Methodology Background ………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2.3. Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
3.2.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)……………………………………………………………………..18
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 3
4. Recommendation: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
5. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
6. References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
List of Figures
Figure 1: composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 30° angle. ………….8
Figure 2: Data-logger connection with flat metal plate collectors………………………………………8
Figure 3: Data-logger Connected to the Laptop. ……………………………………………………………..9
Figure 4: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 30 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Figure 5: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 40 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Figure 6: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 60 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11
Figure 7: White Light Reflection for Different Surfaces [2]. …………………………………………..11
Figure 8: Irradiance Sensor Placed on Collector. …………………………………………………………..13
Figure 9: 30 Degree C tilt with recording instrument……………………………………………………..14
Figure 10: Mass Flow Rate vs. Efficiency of Flat Plate Collector. …………………………………..19
Figure 11: Plate Collector Angles vs. Efficiency……………………………………………………………19
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 4
List of Tables
Table 1: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 20 degree C. ………………………………………15
Table 2: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 30 degree C. ………………………………………15
Table 3: Efficiency Calculation at 20 degree C tilt…………………………………………………………16
Table 4: Efficiency calculation at 30 degree tilt. ……………………………………………………………17
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 5
2. Introduction
Although, a lot of the appliances available today are designed to work on heat transferring,
Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors are the most popular systems in terms of heat
transferring. Heat transfers can be represented by a temperature difference and a
resistance between those temperatures whose magnitude represents the difficulty in
transferring heat by this mechanism [2]. This report is based on the Flat Plate Collector
Efficiency. In spite of the fact, there are two main aspects that have been used in order to
fulfil the requirements of this report.
2.1 Objectives
The significant objectives of this laboratory are as follows:
 To gain an understanding of the principles of operation.
 To Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors.
 To determine the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture.
2.2. Background
Flat Plate Collector (FPC) is widely used for domestic hot-water, space heating/drying and
for applications requiring fluid temperature less than 100 degree C. The absorber plate of
the FPC transfers solar energy to liquid flowing in the tubes. The flow can takes place due to
thermo-syphon effect or by forced convection. However, certain energy absorbed by the
plate is lost to atmosphere due to higher temperature of the plate. The collector efficiency
is dependent on the temperature of the plate which in turn is dependent on the nature of
flow of fluid inside the tube, solar insolation, ambient temperature, top loss coefficient, the
emissivity of the plate and glass cover, slope, etc. [2].
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 6
3. Experiment Requirements
3.1. Used Equipment [1]
The following equipments have been used in this laboratory experiment:
 Pyranometers
 Flat plate metal collectors
 Multimeters or Data-loggers
 Solar hot water flat plate collectors
 Buckets and scale
3.2. Supported Materials [1]
The following materials have been supplied by the students in this laboratory experiment:
 Camera/Mobile phone for photographs.
 Enclosed footwear (compulsory) and appropriate clothing (sun protection) for outdoor
experiments and site visit.
3. Laboratory Experiment Parts (Tasks)
In this lab experiment, two parts have been carried out which are as follow:
Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
Each part will be discussed separately in terms of:
 Objective.
 Methodology Background.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 7
 Results
 Discussion (Results Analysis)
3.1. Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
3.1.1. Objective
The objective of this part is to determine the effect of collector coating and composition on
the thermal losses of the solar thermal collector [1].
3.1.2. Methodology Background
In this part of the lab experiment, the following steps have been carried out:
1. Considering the flat metal plate collectors provided:
 Coating and
 Composition
2. During a sunny period:
 Placing each type of plate so that it is facing directly at the sun (There were stands
provided to help with this) [1].
 Both of coating and composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in
stand of 30° angle as can be seen in Figure 1 below.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 8
Figure 1: composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 30° angle.
 Recording data over a long period to observe the temperature change[1].
 Both of flat metal plate collectors were connected to data-loggers as shown
in Figure 2 below.
Figure 2: Data-logger connection with flat metal plate collectors.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 9
 Noting any relevant meteorological conditions during this period.
 Data-loggers have been calibrated in order to record T-type thermocouples
voltage reading in mV.
 Then, the data-loggers were left to record for approximately 10 minutes.
3. Although the above steps have been repeated two more times, both of coating and
composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 40° and 60° angles.
4. Recording of all angles (30°, 40° and 60°) has been completed. Then, data-logger was
connected to PC/laptop as can be seen in Figure 3 below in order to extract data to
MCR software.
Figure 3: Data-logger Connected to the Laptop.
Finally, the data from MCR has been converted to Excel file in order to determine the
difference in temperature as can be seen later in the result section.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 10
3.1.3. Results
As a result, Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 below illustrate different thermal losses of
coating and composition plat collectors with different tilts (30°, 40° and 60°) respectively.
Figure 5: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 40 degree (C) tilt.
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
The effect of collector coating and composition
on the thermal losses at 40 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
The effect of collector coating and composition
on the thermal losses at 30 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
Figure 4: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 30 degree (C) tilt.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 11
Figure 6: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 60 degree
(C) tilt.
3.1.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)
It is obvious that coating plat collector has higher thermal energy absorption than
composition plat collector .In spite of the fact, the black colour coating plat collector
absorbed all visible spectrum which has leaded to high temperature of the plat collector
surface. In contrast, the composition plat collector has reflated most of the visible spectrum
as can be seen clearly in Figure 7 below [2].
Figure 7: White Light Reflection for Different Surfaces [2].
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
Effect of collector coating and composition on
the thermal losses at 60 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 12
Indeed, as shown in Figure 4 above that the highest temperatures were found when both
the plat collectors where seated at 30°(C) tilt which are 33C° and 20 C° for coating plat
collector and composition plat collector respectively.
Furthermore, both of 40° C and 60° C tilt approximately have similar temperature rang with
a some fluctuations due to cloudy weather. Finally, as a result of the first part of this
laboratory experiment, coated plat collector is the best choice for absorbing thermal
energy.
3.2. Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
3.2.1. Objective
The objective of part 2 in this laboratory experiment is to determine the efficiency of a flat
plate solar collector and these changes with inlet temperature by using the inlet and outlet
temperature of a flat plate collector and the intensity of solar radiation on the collector’s
surface [2].
3.2.2. Methodology Background
In this part of the lab experiment, the following steps have been carried out:
 1
st: Water hose was connected in both of the inlet and outlet of the flat plate solar
thermal collector (20°).
 2
nd: All provided thermocouples have been used to measure the inlet and outlet
temperatures of the solar thermal system.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 13
 All of thermocouples were replaced in input, output and the back of flat plate
solar thermal collector.
 3
rd: Irradiance sensor was placed in the body of the plat collector as can be seen in
Figure 8 below.
Figure 8: Irradiance Sensor Placed on Collector.
 4
th: The water has been allowed to pass through the system at a steady flow rate.
 5
th: Allowing the system for a few minutes to be stabilised at this flow rate.
 At the meant time, a plastic bucket was placed in the outlet in order to
collect the water to calculate the mass flow rate with the assistance of
stopwatch and weight scale.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 14
 10 minutes later of data recording, the same steps were repeated for higher flow
rate.
 Finally, the same steps have been applied to different tilt (30°) for both high and low
flow rates as shown in Figure 9 below.
Figure 9: 30 Degree C tilt with recording instrument.
3.2.3. Results
As a result, Table 1 and Table 2 below illustrate mass flow rate of collector at 20 degree C
and at 30 degree C respectively.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 15
Table 1: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 20 degree C.
Table 2: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 30 degree C.
slow flow high flow
mass(KG) 4.1 5.3
time(S) 128 53
mass (KG) 4.1 5.3
time(S) 127 52.29
Avg,flow(Kg/S) 0.032157 0.100679
Table 3 and Table 4 below demonstrate efficiency calculation at 20 degree tilt and at 30
degree tilt respectively.
low flow high flow
mass(KG) 3.1 5.8
time(S) 246 52
mass (KG) 3.5 5.8
time(S) 260 53.27
Avg,flow(Kg/S) 0.013031582 0.110208878
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
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Table 3: Efficiency Calculation at 20 degree C tilt.
20degree Irradiance(W/m2 ) Ti (C°) To(C°) Ambient(C°) To-Ti Efficiency η Low flow rate
293 19 32 33.4 13 1.221370036
334 18 29 34.2 11 0.906604244
347 19 29 33.5 10 0.793308403
336 20 31 34 11 0.90120779
336 20 33 34.4 13 1.065063751
1157 21 32 34.3 11 0.26171635
1020 21 34 32.7 13 0.35084453
463 21 47 31.7 26 1.545837669
223 20 39 31.6 19 2.345418071
205 20 38 32 18 2.41707526
216 20 35 32.7 15 1.911652887
260 20 34 32.3 14 1.482266239
301 20 33 32.1 13 1.188908374
High flow rate
346 19 28 32.4 9 6.055602661
287 19 26 31.2 7 5.678153173
270 19 27 31.6 8 6.897904595
330 19 27 31.1 8 5.643740123
352 19 26 30.8 7 4.62963057
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 17
Table 4: Efficiency calculation at 30 degree tilt.
30degree irradiance(W/m2 ) Ti (C°) To(C°) To-Ti Efficiency η Low flow rate
254 22 25 3 0.80231
252 22 25 3 0.808678
281 22 23 1 0.24174
1156 21 24 3 0.176286
478 21 23 2 0.284221
246 21 23 2 0.552268
232 22 23 1 0.292797
253 22 24 2 0.536988
High flow rate
270 21 26 5 3.938394
273 21 26 5 3.895114
295 21 26 5 3.604631
358 21 26 5 2.970297
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 18
3.2.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)
Efficiency Calculation of a flat plate solar thermal collector has been done by using the
following equation [1].
η=
Where
 (CP ) is the heat capacity of water,
 (m) mass flow rate,
 (To-Ti) different in temperature,
 (Ac) the area of the surface, and
 (GT ) irradiance.
Abnormal reading of the efficiency has been gotten when many reading above 100%. In fact,
it occurred because the input temperature was away from the ambient temperature. In
addition, the weather was cloudy and has large effect on the calculation.
Finally, as a result, Figure 10 below shows a comparison between Mass Flow Rate and
Efficiency. Indeed, the comparison results as higher flow rate leads to higher efficiency.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 19
Figure 10: Mass Flow Rate vs. Efficiency of Flat Plate Collector.
Figure 11 below shows a comparison between plate collector angles and Efficiency. Indeed,
the comparison results as Lower angles lead to lower efficiency.
Figure 11: Plate Collector Angles vs. Efficiency.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Efficiency η(%)
Mass flow rate (Kg/S)
Mass Flow Rate vs Efficiency of Flat Plate
Collector
20 degree
30 degree
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Efficiency η(%)
Angle ( Degree)
Plate Collector Angles VS. Efficiency Flow rate 0.1 to 0.11
Flow rate= 0.013 to 0.032
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 20
4. Recommendation:
In order to get better results and more accurate calculations, the lab needs to done in a
good weather condition and a temperature controller need to be used in the input of the
collector in order to get the right efficiency reading.
5. Conclusion
The results that have been accomplished through this Laboratory experiments are based on
the recorded data which has been gotten using data-loggers and thermocouples. In fact, to
conclude of the first part which is determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate
collectors, black colour coating plat collector is better than composition plat collector in
terms of thermal energy absorbing. Moreover, it has been found that 30° C tilt is the highest
temperature recording among the three stands.
In a summary of the second part which is determination the efficiency of a flat plate solar
thermal collector. Regardless of abnormal reading, 20° C tilt has higher efficiency than 30° C
with respect to the mass flow rate. Additionally, good weather condition has to be taken
into considerations in order to get better results. Moreover, the inlet temperature needs to
be controlled to achieve realistic reading and calculations.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 21
6. References
[1] Parlevliet, D. (2017). ENG441 ~ Laboratory 2, Flat Plate Collector Efficiency. Murdoch,
Perth, Australia.
[2] Struckmann, F. (2008). Analysis of a Flat-plate Solar Collector. Lund, Sweden: Lund
University, Box 118, 22100.

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Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors

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GET A 40% DISCOUNT ON YOU FIRST ORDER

ORDER NOW DISCOUNT CODE >>>> WELCOME40

Note : tis short report consist of two parts:
•    Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors
•    Effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 0
“This report is submitted to the School of Engineering and
Energy, Murdoch University in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Flat Plate Collector Efficiency
Laboratory for ENG441.”
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 1
1. Executive Summary
Flat Plate Collector (FPC) is widely used for domestic hot-water, space heating/drying and
for applications requiring fluid temperature less than 100 degree C. This report
demonstrates two significant objectives of this laboratory which are as follows:
 To Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors.
 To determine the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture.
In this lab experiment, two parts have been carried out which are as follow:
 Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
 Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
As a result of part one, black colour coating plat collector is better than composition plat
collector in terms of thermal energy absorbing. As a result of part two, 20° C tilt has higher
efficiency than 30° C with respect to the mass flow rate.
Good weather condition should to be taken into considerations in order to get better results
for this type of laboratories. Measuring the heat loss from flat plate collectors and
determining the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture are the main goals of
this laboratory which have been achieved.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 2
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………1
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
2. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
2.1 Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
2.2. Background………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
3. Experiment Requirements…………………………………………………………………………………………6
3.1. Used Equipment [1]…………………………………………………………………………………………..6
3.2. Supported Materials [1] ……………………………………………………………………………………..6
3. Laboratory Experiment Parts (Tasks)…………………………………………………………………………6
3.1. Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors……………………….7
3.1.1. Objective ……………………………………………………………………………………………………7
3.1.2. Methodology Background ……………………………………………………………………………7
3.1.3. Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
3.1.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)……………………………………………………………………..11
3.2. Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector. ……………………………………….12
3.2.1. Objective ………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2.2. Methodology Background ………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2.3. Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
3.2.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)……………………………………………………………………..18
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 3
4. Recommendation: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
5. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
6. References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
List of Figures
Figure 1: composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 30° angle. ………….8
Figure 2: Data-logger connection with flat metal plate collectors………………………………………8
Figure 3: Data-logger Connected to the Laptop. ……………………………………………………………..9
Figure 4: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 30 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Figure 5: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 40 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Figure 6: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 60 degree
(C) tilt………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11
Figure 7: White Light Reflection for Different Surfaces [2]. …………………………………………..11
Figure 8: Irradiance Sensor Placed on Collector. …………………………………………………………..13
Figure 9: 30 Degree C tilt with recording instrument……………………………………………………..14
Figure 10: Mass Flow Rate vs. Efficiency of Flat Plate Collector. …………………………………..19
Figure 11: Plate Collector Angles vs. Efficiency……………………………………………………………19
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 4
List of Tables
Table 1: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 20 degree C. ………………………………………15
Table 2: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 30 degree C. ………………………………………15
Table 3: Efficiency Calculation at 20 degree C tilt…………………………………………………………16
Table 4: Efficiency calculation at 30 degree tilt. ……………………………………………………………17
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 5
2. Introduction
Although, a lot of the appliances available today are designed to work on heat transferring,
Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors are the most popular systems in terms of heat
transferring. Heat transfers can be represented by a temperature difference and a
resistance between those temperatures whose magnitude represents the difficulty in
transferring heat by this mechanism [2]. This report is based on the Flat Plate Collector
Efficiency. In spite of the fact, there are two main aspects that have been used in order to
fulfil the requirements of this report.
2.1 Objectives
The significant objectives of this laboratory are as follows:
 To gain an understanding of the principles of operation.
 To Measure heat loss from flat plate collectors.
 To determine the effectiveness of different surfaces for heat capture.
2.2. Background
Flat Plate Collector (FPC) is widely used for domestic hot-water, space heating/drying and
for applications requiring fluid temperature less than 100 degree C. The absorber plate of
the FPC transfers solar energy to liquid flowing in the tubes. The flow can takes place due to
thermo-syphon effect or by forced convection. However, certain energy absorbed by the
plate is lost to atmosphere due to higher temperature of the plate. The collector efficiency
is dependent on the temperature of the plate which in turn is dependent on the nature of
flow of fluid inside the tube, solar insolation, ambient temperature, top loss coefficient, the
emissivity of the plate and glass cover, slope, etc. [2].
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 6
3. Experiment Requirements
3.1. Used Equipment [1]
The following equipments have been used in this laboratory experiment:
 Pyranometers
 Flat plate metal collectors
 Multimeters or Data-loggers
 Solar hot water flat plate collectors
 Buckets and scale
3.2. Supported Materials [1]
The following materials have been supplied by the students in this laboratory experiment:
 Camera/Mobile phone for photographs.
 Enclosed footwear (compulsory) and appropriate clothing (sun protection) for outdoor
experiments and site visit.
3. Laboratory Experiment Parts (Tasks)
In this lab experiment, two parts have been carried out which are as follow:
Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
Each part will be discussed separately in terms of:
 Objective.
 Methodology Background.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 7
 Results
 Discussion (Results Analysis)
3.1. Part 1: Determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate collectors.
3.1.1. Objective
The objective of this part is to determine the effect of collector coating and composition on
the thermal losses of the solar thermal collector [1].
3.1.2. Methodology Background
In this part of the lab experiment, the following steps have been carried out:
1. Considering the flat metal plate collectors provided:
 Coating and
 Composition
2. During a sunny period:
 Placing each type of plate so that it is facing directly at the sun (There were stands
provided to help with this) [1].
 Both of coating and composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in
stand of 30° angle as can be seen in Figure 1 below.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 8
Figure 1: composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 30° angle.
 Recording data over a long period to observe the temperature change[1].
 Both of flat metal plate collectors were connected to data-loggers as shown
in Figure 2 below.
Figure 2: Data-logger connection with flat metal plate collectors.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 9
 Noting any relevant meteorological conditions during this period.
 Data-loggers have been calibrated in order to record T-type thermocouples
voltage reading in mV.
 Then, the data-loggers were left to record for approximately 10 minutes.
3. Although the above steps have been repeated two more times, both of coating and
composition flat metal plate collectors where placed in stand of 40° and 60° angles.
4. Recording of all angles (30°, 40° and 60°) has been completed. Then, data-logger was
connected to PC/laptop as can be seen in Figure 3 below in order to extract data to
MCR software.
Figure 3: Data-logger Connected to the Laptop.
Finally, the data from MCR has been converted to Excel file in order to determine the
difference in temperature as can be seen later in the result section.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
Page | 10
3.1.3. Results
As a result, Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 below illustrate different thermal losses of
coating and composition plat collectors with different tilts (30°, 40° and 60°) respectively.
Figure 5: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 40 degree (C) tilt.
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
The effect of collector coating and composition
on the thermal losses at 40 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
The effect of collector coating and composition
on the thermal losses at 30 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
Figure 4: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 30 degree (C) tilt.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
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Figure 6: The effect of collector coating and composition on the thermal losses at 60 degree
(C) tilt.
3.1.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)
It is obvious that coating plat collector has higher thermal energy absorption than
composition plat collector .In spite of the fact, the black colour coating plat collector
absorbed all visible spectrum which has leaded to high temperature of the plat collector
surface. In contrast, the composition plat collector has reflated most of the visible spectrum
as can be seen clearly in Figure 7 below [2].
Figure 7: White Light Reflection for Different Surfaces [2].
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature(C°)
Time(S)
Effect of collector coating and composition on
the thermal losses at 60 degree (C) tilt.
coating
composition
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Indeed, as shown in Figure 4 above that the highest temperatures were found when both
the plat collectors where seated at 30°(C) tilt which are 33C° and 20 C° for coating plat
collector and composition plat collector respectively.
Furthermore, both of 40° C and 60° C tilt approximately have similar temperature rang with
a some fluctuations due to cloudy weather. Finally, as a result of the first part of this
laboratory experiment, coated plat collector is the best choice for absorbing thermal
energy.
3.2. Part 2: Efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector.
3.2.1. Objective
The objective of part 2 in this laboratory experiment is to determine the efficiency of a flat
plate solar collector and these changes with inlet temperature by using the inlet and outlet
temperature of a flat plate collector and the intensity of solar radiation on the collector’s
surface [2].
3.2.2. Methodology Background
In this part of the lab experiment, the following steps have been carried out:
 1
st: Water hose was connected in both of the inlet and outlet of the flat plate solar
thermal collector (20°).
 2
nd: All provided thermocouples have been used to measure the inlet and outlet
temperatures of the solar thermal system.
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 All of thermocouples were replaced in input, output and the back of flat plate
solar thermal collector.
 3
rd: Irradiance sensor was placed in the body of the plat collector as can be seen in
Figure 8 below.
Figure 8: Irradiance Sensor Placed on Collector.
 4
th: The water has been allowed to pass through the system at a steady flow rate.
 5
th: Allowing the system for a few minutes to be stabilised at this flow rate.
 At the meant time, a plastic bucket was placed in the outlet in order to
collect the water to calculate the mass flow rate with the assistance of
stopwatch and weight scale.
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 10 minutes later of data recording, the same steps were repeated for higher flow
rate.
 Finally, the same steps have been applied to different tilt (30°) for both high and low
flow rates as shown in Figure 9 below.
Figure 9: 30 Degree C tilt with recording instrument.
3.2.3. Results
As a result, Table 1 and Table 2 below illustrate mass flow rate of collector at 20 degree C
and at 30 degree C respectively.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
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Table 1: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 20 degree C.
Table 2: Mass Flow Rate of The Plat Collector at 30 degree C.
slow flow high flow
mass(KG) 4.1 5.3
time(S) 128 53
mass (KG) 4.1 5.3
time(S) 127 52.29
Avg,flow(Kg/S) 0.032157 0.100679
Table 3 and Table 4 below demonstrate efficiency calculation at 20 degree tilt and at 30
degree tilt respectively.
low flow high flow
mass(KG) 3.1 5.8
time(S) 246 52
mass (KG) 3.5 5.8
time(S) 260 53.27
Avg,flow(Kg/S) 0.013031582 0.110208878
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Table 3: Efficiency Calculation at 20 degree C tilt.
20degree Irradiance(W/m2 ) Ti (C°) To(C°) Ambient(C°) To-Ti Efficiency η Low flow rate
293 19 32 33.4 13 1.221370036
334 18 29 34.2 11 0.906604244
347 19 29 33.5 10 0.793308403
336 20 31 34 11 0.90120779
336 20 33 34.4 13 1.065063751
1157 21 32 34.3 11 0.26171635
1020 21 34 32.7 13 0.35084453
463 21 47 31.7 26 1.545837669
223 20 39 31.6 19 2.345418071
205 20 38 32 18 2.41707526
216 20 35 32.7 15 1.911652887
260 20 34 32.3 14 1.482266239
301 20 33 32.1 13 1.188908374
High flow rate
346 19 28 32.4 9 6.055602661
287 19 26 31.2 7 5.678153173
270 19 27 31.6 8 6.897904595
330 19 27 31.1 8 5.643740123
352 19 26 30.8 7 4.62963057
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Table 4: Efficiency calculation at 30 degree tilt.
30degree irradiance(W/m2 ) Ti (C°) To(C°) To-Ti Efficiency η Low flow rate
254 22 25 3 0.80231
252 22 25 3 0.808678
281 22 23 1 0.24174
1156 21 24 3 0.176286
478 21 23 2 0.284221
246 21 23 2 0.552268
232 22 23 1 0.292797
253 22 24 2 0.536988
High flow rate
270 21 26 5 3.938394
273 21 26 5 3.895114
295 21 26 5 3.604631
358 21 26 5 2.970297
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
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3.2.4. Discussion (Results Analysis)
Efficiency Calculation of a flat plate solar thermal collector has been done by using the
following equation [1].
η=
Where
 (CP ) is the heat capacity of water,
 (m) mass flow rate,
 (To-Ti) different in temperature,
 (Ac) the area of the surface, and
 (GT ) irradiance.
Abnormal reading of the efficiency has been gotten when many reading above 100%. In fact,
it occurred because the input temperature was away from the ambient temperature. In
addition, the weather was cloudy and has large effect on the calculation.
Finally, as a result, Figure 10 below shows a comparison between Mass Flow Rate and
Efficiency. Indeed, the comparison results as higher flow rate leads to higher efficiency.
Laboratory 2 Report ENG441 Solar Thermal and Biomass Engineering
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Figure 10: Mass Flow Rate vs. Efficiency of Flat Plate Collector.
Figure 11 below shows a comparison between plate collector angles and Efficiency. Indeed,
the comparison results as Lower angles lead to lower efficiency.
Figure 11: Plate Collector Angles vs. Efficiency.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Efficiency η(%)
Mass flow rate (Kg/S)
Mass Flow Rate vs Efficiency of Flat Plate
Collector
20 degree
30 degree
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Efficiency η(%)
Angle ( Degree)
Plate Collector Angles VS. Efficiency Flow rate 0.1 to 0.11
Flow rate= 0.013 to 0.032
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4. Recommendation:
In order to get better results and more accurate calculations, the lab needs to done in a
good weather condition and a temperature controller need to be used in the input of the
collector in order to get the right efficiency reading.
5. Conclusion
The results that have been accomplished through this Laboratory experiments are based on
the recorded data which has been gotten using data-loggers and thermocouples. In fact, to
conclude of the first part which is determination the heat losses in a simple flat plate
collectors, black colour coating plat collector is better than composition plat collector in
terms of thermal energy absorbing. Moreover, it has been found that 30° C tilt is the highest
temperature recording among the three stands.
In a summary of the second part which is determination the efficiency of a flat plate solar
thermal collector. Regardless of abnormal reading, 20° C tilt has higher efficiency than 30° C
with respect to the mass flow rate. Additionally, good weather condition has to be taken
into considerations in order to get better results. Moreover, the inlet temperature needs to
be controlled to achieve realistic reading and calculations.
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6. References
[1] Parlevliet, D. (2017). ENG441 ~ Laboratory 2, Flat Plate Collector Efficiency. Murdoch,
Perth, Australia.
[2] Struckmann, F. (2008). Analysis of a Flat-plate Solar Collector. Lund, Sweden: Lund
University, Box 118, 22100.

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