NMC Horizon Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/publications/2013-horizon-report-k12

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RESOURCE:
NMC Horizon Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/publications/2013-horizon-report-k12
Using the current K-12 edition of the NMC Horizon Report that you downloaded in Week 1, read the following sections:
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years
SO ONE PAGE PER HORIZON> This week, you read about educational technologies coming onto the horizon in one year or less, in two to three years, and in four to five years. Two types of technologies were identified for each time-to-adoption horizon, and a number of examples were given for how these technologies have been used to create powerful learning experiences in classrooms around the world.
For this Assessment, you will conduct an investigation of one of the technologies in each of three horizon time frames. The purpose of these investigations is for you to increase your awareness of emerging technologies, adopt the practice of staying abreast of technology trends, and develop a mindset for finding ways to leverage technologies to give your students equitable access to 21st-century learning opportunities.
Instructions:
Investigate one of the technologies presented in each of the three time-to-adoption horizons. Conduct and report on each of your three investigations as follows:
Identify the horizon and the technology.
Which technology within the horizon did you choose?
Why did you choose this one?
How does this technology connect to your teaching context, which you shared with your colleagues in your Week 1 Discussion post? You should provide specific examples for how the technology you selected relates and intersects with your classroom and your students.
Explore at least three examples of the technology applied in practice.
Which examples did you explore?
What in these examples most impressed or expanded your thinking?
What questions about this technology do you still have?
How could you create similar experiences for your students? How would this help your students reach your classroom academic and/or social vision and goals?
Describe two challenges you might have to overcome to create such experiences, and explain how you might overcome them.
Read one of the “For Further Reading” articles that is of greatest interest or relevance to you.
Which article did you read? Why did you choose this article?
What did you gain from this article that will help you enhance your practice?
What questions did this article prompt for you?
How does this article compare/contrast to your own teaching experience?
How does this article relate to other resources/technologies/ideas that you have explored in this module?
As you reference and point to specific resources, ideas, concepts, and technologies you should be sure to provide the proper APA citation to the resource.
When finished, make sure to click Submit.
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NMC Horizon Report > 2013 K-12 Edition
The internationally recognized NMC Horizon Report series and regional NMC Technology Outlooks are
part of the NMC Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies
and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in education
around the globe.
1
Executive Summary 3
Key Trends 7
Significant Challenges 9
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less
> Cloud Computing 11
> Mobile Learning 16
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
> Learning Analytics 20
> Open Content 24
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years
> 3D Printing 28
> Virtual and Remote Laboratories 32
The NMC Horizon Project 36
Methodology 38
The NMC Horizon Project: 2013 K-12 Edition Advisory Board 40
Contents > Click on a topic or page number to jump to that page.
Interested in these emerging technology topics? Learn more about them and other edtech insights by “liking”us on
Facebook at facebook.com/newmediaconsortium and following us on Twitter at twitter.com/nmcorg.
NMC
The research behind the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition is
a collaboration between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the
Consortium for School Networking (CoSN), and the International
Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Their critical participation
in the production of this report and their strong support for the NMC
Horizon Project is gratefully acknowledged. To learn more about the
NMC, visit www.nmc.org; to learn more about CoSN, visit www.cosn.org;
to learn more about ISTE, visit www.iste.org.
© 2013, The New Media Consortium.
ISBN 978-0-9889140-1-8
Permission is granted under a Creative Commons Attribution License to
replicate, copy, distribute, transmit, or adapt this report freely provided
that attribution is provided as illustrated in the citation below. To view
a copy of this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or
send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford,
California 94305, USA.
Citation
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada V., Freeman, A., and
Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas:
The New Media Consortium.
The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition is a collaboration between the New Media
Consortium, the Consortium for School Networking, and the International Society for
Technology in Education.
The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition is made
possible through support from HP.
HP creates innovative technology solutions that benefit
individuals, businesses, governments and society. Social
innovation at HP centers on the belief that the same passion,
energy, and culture of innovation that make HP a successful company
can also be used to make a profound and positive social impact in the
world. HP Sustainability and Social Innovation helpsshare HP talent and
technology where they are needed most. More information is available
at www.hp.com/social-innovation.
Cover Photograph
© PhotoDisc
Inside Front and Back Cover Photograph
“A NewTouch”byWan SinYee, 17, Hong Kong. Submitted for the Humans
in Space Youth Art Competition (www.HumansInSpaceArt.org).
Design by emgusa.com
he internationally recognized NMC Horizon
Report series and regional NMC Technology
Outlooks are part of the NMC Horizon Project,
a comprehensive research venture established
in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging
technologies likely to have a large impact over the
coming five years in education around the globe.
This volume, the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12
Edition, examines emerging technologies for their
potential impact on and use in teaching, learning,
and creative expression within the environment of
pre-college education. While there are many local
factors affecting the practice of education, there are
also issues that transcend regional boundaries and
questions common to K-12 education; it was with
these questions in mind that this report was created.
The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition is the fifth
in the K-12 series of reports and is produced by the
NMC in collaboration with the Consortium for School
Networking (CoSN) and the International Society for
Technology in Education (ISTE), with the generous
support of HP’s Sustainability & Social Innovation
team.
Each of the three global editions of the NMC Horizon
Report — higher education, primary and secondary
education (K-12), and museum education — highlights
six emerging technologies or practices that are likely to
enter mainstream use within their focus sectors over
the next five years. Key trends and challenges that will
affect current practice over the same period frame these
discussions.
The six technologies featured in the NMC Horizon
Report: 2013 K-12 Edition are placed along three
adoption horizons that indicate likely timeframes
for their entrance into mainstream use for teaching,
learning, and creative inquiry. The near-term horizon
assumes the likelihood of entry into the mainstream
for schools within the next 12 months; the mid-term
horizon, within two to three years; and the far-term,
within four to five years. Itshould be noted at the outset
that the NMC Horizon Report is not a predictive tool. It is
meant, rather, to highlight emerging technologies with
considerable potential for our focus areas of education
and interpretation. Each of the six is already the target
of work at a number of innovative organizations around
the world, and the projects we showcase here reveal the
promise of a wider impact.
Near-term Horizon
On the near-term horizon — that is, within the next
12 months — are two related but distinct categories:
cloud computing and mobile learning. These two sets of
technologies have become a pervasive part of everyday
life in much of the world, and are growing everywhere.
Students have ever-increasing expectations of being
able to work, play, and learn via cloud-based services
and apps across their mobile devices, whenever they
want and wherever they may be.
Executive Summary
3
T
The six technologies featured in
the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12
Edition are placed along three
adoption horizons that indicate
likely timeframes for their entrance
into mainstream use for teaching,
learning, and creative inquiry.
> Cloud computing has already transformed the
way users of the Internet think about computing
and communication, data storage and access, and
collaborative work. Cloud-based applications and
services are available to many school students today,
and more schools are employing cloud-based tools
all the time. Now schools are outsourcing significant
parts of their infrastructure, such as email and
backups, to cloud providers. Emerging devices, such
as Google’s Chromebooks, are designed expressly to
operate in the cloud and have entered the market
at affordable prices, making them viable options
for one-to-one learning. These developments have
contributed considerably to the adoption of cloud
computing approaches at K-12 schools across the
globe.
> Mobile learning is becoming an integral part of K-12
education, as it is increasingly common for students
to own and use portable devices. With easy to use,
touchscreen interfaces, even the youngest children
can easily pick up a tablet or smartphone and
interact with it almost immediately. Mobile devices
are gateways to endless learning, collaboration,
and productivity fostered by the Internet. In recent
years, schools have been implementing one-toone
and BYOD strategies to take advantage of
mobile technologies that are more accessible and
pervasive with each passing year. One of the fastest
growing facets of mobiles are mobile apps, and
the momentum has yet to slow down. Scores of
education companies and websites are creating
responsive programs, platforms, and curricula for
mobile devices. Moreover, app development and
programming is being taught to K-12 students in
schools and after-school programs.
Mid-term Horizon
In the second adoption horizon, two to three years out,
adoptions of two technologies that are experiencing
growing interest within K-12 education are expected
to pass the 20% penetration point that marks entry
into mainstream practice: these are learning analytics
and open content. Learning analytics is a burgeoning
body of work rooted in the study of big data, which
aims to use analytic techniques common in businesses
to gain insights about student behavior and learning.
Information derived from learning analytics can inform
instructional practice in real time, as well as aid in the
design of curricula and platforms that personalize
education. Open content is gaining traction in K-12,
with interest driven by a growing range of open source
textbooks and a wider recognition of the collaborative
philosophy behind creating and sharing free content.
> Learning analytics is the field associated with
deciphering trends and patterns from educational
big data, or huge sets of student-related data,
to further the advancement of a personalized,
supportive system of K-12 education. Preliminary
uses of student data were directed toward targeting
at-risk learners in order to improve student retention.
The widespread adoption of learning and course
management systems has refined the outcomes of
learning analytics to look at students more precisely.
Student-specific data can now be used to customize
curricula and suggest resources to students in the
same way that businesses tailor advertisements and
offers to customers. Schools are already employing
analytics software to make the college advising
process more efficient and accurate, while researchers
are developing mobile software to coach students
toward productive behaviors and habitsthat will lead
to their success.
> Open contentisthe current form of a movement that
began a decade ago, when universities such as MIT
began to make their course content freely available.
4 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Student-specific data can now be
used to customize curricula and
suggest resources to students
in the same way that businesses
tailor advertisements and offers to
customers.
Twelve years later, schools are sharing a significant
amountof curricula,resources, andlearningmaterials.
There is a growing variety of open content from K-12
organizations and schools, and in many parts of the
world, open content represents a profound shift in
the way students study and learn. Far more than just
a collection of free online course materials, the open
content movement is increasingly a response to the
rising costs of education, the desire to provide access
to learning in areas where such access is difficult, and
an expression ofstudent choice about when and how
to learn.
Far-term Horizon
On the far-term horizon, set at four to five years away
from entry into the mainstream of practice, are 3D
printing and virtual and remote laboratories. 3D printing
provides a more accessible, less expensive, desktop
alternative to industrial forms of rapid prototyping.
Many of the discussions surrounding 3D printers stem
from the Maker culture, an enthused community of
designers, programmers, and others that brings a
do-it-yourself approach to science and engineering.
Virtual and remote laboratories provide students with
the opportunity to conduct scientific experiments as
often as they like, from whatever device they are using.
In virtual laboratories, the equipment is simulated,
while remote laboratories encompass high-caliber
apparatuses that are housed in central locations. These
technologies are several years away from mainstream
use, but already it is clear that their impact will be
significant, despite the lack of well-documented
K-12 project examples. The high level of interest and
investment in both areas are clear indicators that they
are worth following closely.
> 3D printing has become much more affordable
and accessible in recent years in large part due to
the efforts of MakerBot Industries. Founded in 2009,
this company has promoted the idea of openness
by offering products that can be built by anyone
with minimal technical expertise. With MakerBot
Replicators selling in the range of $1,500 to $3,000, it
now only requires a small financial investment to own
a 3D printer. Moreover, websites such as Thingiverse
offer source files that anyone can use to print objects
without original designs, and mobile apps, such as
123D Catch, make it possible for anyone to create
their own 3D images of real objects for printing.
Schools are using 3D printersto illuminate the design
process, build rapid prototypes, and create models
that demonstrate concepts in curricula.
> Virtual and remote laboratories leverage wireless
networks, mobile devices, and cloud-based software
to make scientific experiences more accessible for
schools that lack fully equipped labs. In many ways,
virtual and remote labs have benefits that hands
on environments do not; in virtual and remote
environments, an experiment can be conducted
numeroustimes with greater efficiency and precision.
Granted 24/7 access and with more room to make
mistakes, students can spend more time making
scientific measurements and engaging in laboratory
practices. Many schools are taking advantage ofthese
virtual interfaces and simulationsto provide students
with authentic scientific experiences without the
associated costs of building and maintaining physical
lab spaces.
To create the report, an international body of experts in
education, technology, and other fields was convened
as an advisory board. Over the course of just a few
weeks in the Spring of 2013, the 2013 Horizon.K12
advisory board came to a consensus about the topics
that appear here in the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12
Edition. The examples and readings under each topic
area are meant to provide practical models as well as
access to more detailed information.
Each of these technologies is described in detail in the
main body of the report, where a discussion of what
the technology is and why it is relevant to teaching,
learning, or creative inquiry can also be found. Our
research indicates that all six of these technologies
have clear and immediate potential for teaching and
learning, and this report aims to document that in a
simple and compelling fashion.
The group engaged in discussions around a set of
researchquestionsintendedtosurfacesignificanttrends
and challenges and to identify a wide array of potential
Executive Summary 5
technologies for the report. This dialog was enriched
by an extensive range of resources, current research,
and practices that drew on the expertise of both the
NMC community and the communities of the members
of the advisory board. These interactions among the
advisory board are the focus of the NMC Horizon Report:
2013 K-12 Edition research, and this report details the
areas in which these experts were in strong agreement.
The precise research methodology employed is detailed
in the closing section of this report.
The advisory board of 55 technology experts spanned
18 countries this year, and their names are listed at the
end ofthisreport.Despite their diversity of backgrounds
and experience, they share a consensus view that each
of the profiled topics are going to have a significant
impact on the practice of primary and secondary
education around the globe over the next five years.
The key trends driving interest in their adoption, and
the challenges schools and school systems will need to
addressifthey are to reach their potential, also represent
their perspective, and are the focus of the next sections
of the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition, where
each is detailed in the context of schools, teaching, and
learning.
To make comparisons easy, the report’s format is
consistent from year to year and edition to edition, and
opens with a discussion of the trends and challenges
identified by the advisory board as most important
for the next five years. The format of the main section
of this edition closely reflects the focus of the NMC
Horizon Project itself, centering on the applications of
emerging technologies — in this case for K-12 settings.
Each section is introduced with an overview that
describes what the topic is, followed by a discussion
of the particular relevance of the topic to teaching,
learning, and creative inquiry in K-12 education. Several
concrete examples of how the technology is being used
are given.
Finally, each section closes with an annotated list
of suggested readings and additional examples
that expand on the discussion in the report. These
resources, along with a wide collection of other helpful
projects and readings, can all be found in the project’s
open content database that is accessible via the NMC
Horizon EdTech Weekly App for iOS (go.nmc.org/ios)
and Android devices (go.nmc.org/android). All the
background materials for the NMC Horizon Report: 2013
K-12 Edition, including the research data,the preliminary
selections, the topic preview, and this publication,
can be downloaded for free on iTunes U (go.nmc.org/
itunes-u).
6 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Schools are using 3D printers to
illuminate the design process, build
rapid prototypes, and create models
that demonstrate concepts in
curricula.
he technologies featured in each edition of the
NMC Horizon Report are embedded within a
contemporary context that reflects the realities
of the time, both in the sphere of K-12 education
and in the world at large. To ensure this context
was well understood, the advisory board engaged in an
extensive review of current articles, interviews, papers,
and new research to identify and rank trends that are
currently affecting teaching, learning, and creative
inquiry in K-12 education. Once detailed, the list of
trends was then ranked according to how significant
each was likely to be for K-12 education in the next
five years. Those listed here had significant agreement
among the advisory board members, who considered
them to be key drivers of educational technology
decisions over that time. They are listed here in the
order in which the advisory board ranked them.
1 Education paradigms are shifting to include
online learning, hybrid learning, and
collaborative models. Students already spend much of
their free time on the Internet, learning and exchanging
new information — often via their social networks.
Institutions that embrace face-to-face/online hybrid
learning models have the potential to leverage the
online skills learners have already developed
independentofacademia.Onlinelearningenvironments
have distinct advantages over physical campuses,
including opportunities for greater collaboration while
equipping students with stronger digital skills. Hybrid
models, when designed and implemented successfully,
enable students to travel to campus for some activities,
while using the network for others, taking advantage of
the best of both environments.
2 Social media is changing the way people
interact, present ideas and information, and
communicate. More than one billion people use
Facebook regularly; othersocial media platforms extend
those numbers to nearly one third of all people on the
planet. Educators,students, and even the general public
routinely use social media to share current events,
opinions, and articles of interest. Likewise,scientists and
researchers use social media to keep their communities
informed of new developments. The fact that all of
these various groups are using social media speaks
to its effectiveness in engaging people. The impact of
these changes in scholarly communication and on the
credibility of information remains to be seen, but it is
clear that social media has found significant traction
in almost every education sector. It is not uncommon,
for example, to see teachers using Facebook, Twitter,
Google Hangouts, and other platforms to connect with
their students.
3 Openness — concepts like open content, open
data, and open resources, along with notions
of transparency and easy access to data and
information — is becoming a value. As authoritative
sources lose their importance, there is need for more
curation and other forms of validation to generate
meaning in information and media.“Open”has become
a term often applied in very different contexts. Often
mistaken to mean “free,” open education advocates are
working towards a common vision that defines “open”
more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but
educational materials that are freely copiable, freely
remixable, and free of barriers to access, sharing, and
educational use.
4 As the cost of technology drops and school
districts revise and open up their access policies,
it is becoming more common for students to bring
their own mobile devices. A growing number of
schools are launching “Bring Your Own Device” (BYOD)
programs so that students can use the devices they
7
Key Trends
T
already own in class. This is happening as a result
of how BYOD impacts budgets; schools can spend
less money on technology overall if they focus their
efforts on equipping the students who cannot afford
their own devices. The relative new interest in BYOD
programs has been accompanied by an attitude shift
as schoolteachers and staff better understand the
capabilities of smartphones and other devices that,
unfortunately, still remain banned on many school
campuses.
5 The abundance of resources and relationships
made easily accessible via the Internet
is challenging us to revisit our roles as
educators. Institutions must consider the unique
value that schools add to a world in which information
is everywhere, and generally free. In such a world,
sense-making and the ability to assess the credibility of
information are paramount. Mentoring and preparing
students for the world in which they will live and work
is again at the forefront. K-12 institutions have always
been seen as critical paths to educational credentialing,
but challenges from competing sources are redefining
what these paths can look like.
8 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
The relative new interest in BYOD
programs has been accompanied by
an attitude shift as schoolteachers
and staff better understand the
capabilities of smartphones and
other devices.
ny discussion of technology adoption must also
consider important constraints and challenges,
and the advisory board drew deeply from
a careful analysis of current events, papers,
articles, and similar sources, as well as personal
experience, in detailing a long list of challenges schools
face in adopting any new technology. The most
important of these are detailed below, but it was clear
from the discussions with the experts that behind the
challenges listed here is also a pervasive sense that
local and organizational constraints are likely the most
important factors in any decision to adopt — or not to
adopt — a given technology.
Even K-12 institutions that are eager to adopt new
technologies may be constrained by school policies, the
lack of necessary human resources, and the financial
wherewithal to realize their ideas. Still others are
located within buildings that simply were not designed
to provide the radio frequency transparency that
wireless technologies require, and thus find themselves
shut out of many potential technology options. While
acknowledging that local barriers to technology
adoptions are many and significant, the advisory board
focused its discussions on challenges that are common
to the global K-12 community as a whole. The highest
ranked challenges they identified are listed here, in the
order in which the advisory board ranked them.
1 Ongoing professional development needs to
be valued and integrated into the culture of the
schools. There is immense pressure placed on teachers
to incorporate emerging technologies and new media
in their classrooms and curriculum. All too often, when
schools mandate the use of a specific technology,
teachers are left without the tools (and often skills)
to effectively integrate the new capabilities into
their teaching methods. The results are that the new
investments are underutilized, not used at all, or used in
a way that mimics an old processrather than innovating
new processesthat may be more engaging forstudents.
2 Too often it is education’s own practices that limit
broader uptake of new technologies. Resistance
to change simply reflects comfort with the status quo.
In many cases, experimentation with or piloting of
innovative applications of technologies are often seen
as outside the role of teacher or school leader, and thus
discouraged. Changing these processes will require
major shifts in attitudes as much as they will in policy.
3 New models of education are bringing
unprecedented competition to traditional
models of schooling. Across the board, institutions
are looking for ways to provide a high quality of service
and more opportunities for learning. MOOCs are at
the forefront of these discussions, and have opened
the doorway to entirely new ways of thinking about
online learning. K-12 institutions are latecomers to
distance education in most cases, but competition from
specialized charter schools and for-profit providers
has called attention to the needs of today’s students,
9
In order for students to get a wellrounded
education with real world
experience, they must also engage in
more informal in-class activities as
well as experience learning outside
the classroom.
Significant Challenges
A
especially those at risk. USC Hybrid High School in
downtown Los Angeles is a good example; its mission
is to graduate 100% of its students to be socially and
academically prepared for success in college and the
workplace. To that end, the school incorporates a
flexible schedule, highly integrated online components,
and personalized learning plans to keep students
engaged and focused on success.
4 K-12 must address the increased blending of
formal and informal learning. Traditional lectures
and subsequent testing are still dominant learning
vehicles in schools. In order for students to get a wellrounded
education with real world experience, they
must also engage in more informal in-class activities as
well as experience learning outside the classroom. In
most schools, students are not encouraged to do this,
nor to experiment and take risks with their learning,
but new models are finding their way into practice.
The “flipped classroom,” for example, uses educational
materials on the Internet as a primary content strategy.
New concepts and material are initially studied outside
of school, thus preserving class time to refine mastery
with discussions, collaborations with classmates,
problem solving, and experimentation. The approach
is not a panacea, and designing an effective blended
learning model is key, but the growing success of the
many non-traditional alternatives to schools that are
using more informal approaches indicates that this
challenge is being confronted.
5 The demand for personalized learning is not
adequately supported by current technology or
practices. The increasing demand for education that is
customizedtoeachstudent’suniqueneedsisdrivingthe
development of new technologies that provide more
learner choice and control and allow for differentiated
instruction, but there remains a gap between the vision
and the tools needed to achieve it. The notion that onesize-fits-all
teaching methods are neither effective nor
acceptable for today’s diverse students is generally
accepted among K-12 educators.
6 We are not using digital media for formative
assessment the way we could and should.
Assessment is an important driver for educational
practice and change, and over the last years we
have seen a welcome rise in the use of formative
assessment in educational practice. However, there
is still an assessment gap in how changes in curricula
and new skill demands are implemented in education;
schools do not always make necessary adjustments
in assessment practices as a consequence of these
changes. Simple applications of digital media tools, like
webcams that allow non-disruptive peer observation,
offer considerable promise in giving teachers timely
feedback they can use.
These trends and challenges are a reflection of how
technology has come to impact almost every aspect of
our lives, and indicative of the changing nature of the
way we learn, communicate, access information, and
assess student performance. This is certainly true across
the developed world, butis also starting to be seen even
in very remote or economically disadvantaged areas.
Taken together, these environmental realities provided
the advisory board a frame through which to consider
the potential impacts of the nearly 50 emerging
technologies and related practices that were analyzed
and discussed for possible inclusion in this edition of
the NMC Horizon Report series. Six of those were chosen
through successive rounds of ranking and have been
identified as “Technologies to Watch.” They each have
been placed on one of three possible time-to-adoption
horizons that span the coming five years, and are
detailed in the main body of the report, which follows.
10 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
any scale that can be accessed from any connected
device, seamlessly and on demand.
Cloud services are grouped into three categories: 1)
infrastructure-as-a-service, commonly referred to as
virtualization — virtual machines, bandwidth, and
storage, all scalable as needed; 2) platform-as-a-service
(PaaS), the environment for developing and delivering
applications; and 3) software-as-a-service (SaaS), software
designed to meet specific needs of an organization.
As more individuals use cloud-based sharing services
such as Dropbox and Google Drive in their personal
lives, cloud computing has become widely recognized
as a means of improving productivity and expanding
collaboration in education, while alleviating the financial
burdens imposed by server-based infrastructures. Cloud
services specifically cut the cost and time required for
server maintenance, and offer support for new tools
that foster best computing practices for easy sharing
and mobility.
In 2011, cloud computing was listed in the near-term
horizon, primarily because of the way it has become an
essential part of collaboration in both schools and the
workplace. This year, the placement of cloud computing
on the near-term horizon for a second time underscores
that the impact of this technology continues to unfold
in new and expanding ways. Its rapid integration into
our everyday lives — from technology infrastructure
to communication exchanges to the many apps and
resources used for informal learning — has only
accelerated institutional interest in cloud computing.
At the same time, it is clear that barriers to adoption in
schools are being met in a variety of ways, especially
concerns that the cloud is not sufficiently safe for
sensitive data. The development of private and hybrid
clouds leverages the benefits of the underlying
11
loud computing refers to expandable, ondemand
services and tools that are served
to the user via the Internet from specialized
data centers and do not live on a user’s
device. Cloud computing resources support
collaboration, file storage, virtualization, and
access to computing cycles. The number of available
applications that rely on cloud technologies has
grown to the point that few institutions do not make
some use of the cloud, whether as a matter of policy or
not. Clouds, especially those supported by dedicated
data centers, can be public, private, secure, or a hybrid
of any or all of these. Increasingly school CIOs see
the cloud as a solution for storage, backup, software
as a service (SaaS), and more, as well as a way to
reduce IT overhead costs. A growing need is for cloud
services to be delivered in a secure manner, especially
in jurisdictions where privacy is a critical concern.
Private cloud computing — essentially specialized
data centers built to provide users highly secure
access to data — solves these issues by providing
common cloud solutions in secure environments.
Hybrid clouds provide the benefits of both types.
Whether connecting at home, work, school, on the
road, or in social spaces, nearly everyone who uses
the network relies on cloud computing to access or
share their information and applications.
Overview
Over the past few years, cloud computing has been
firmly established as an efficient way for businesses —
and increasingly schools — to protect data, develop
applications, deliver software and online platforms, and
to collaborate. Cloud-based services provide a range of
solutions that address a wide variety of needs related
to infrastructure, software, and security. By means of
virtualization, cloud computing providers can deliver
fully-enabled virtual computing environments of almost
Cloud Computing
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less
C
12 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
convenience of cloud computing to create a system
that is scalable, secure, and safe.
As the mobile internet has expanded, new devices such
as Google’s Chromebooks that are designed expressly
to operate in the cloud have entered the market, and at
price pointsthat make them instantly competitive in the
race to one-to-one computing. Similarly, new tablets
and smartphones take full advantage of the cloud and
bring considerable power to these increasingly capable
devices. As districts strengthen their infrastructures to
support one-to-one learning and BYOD deployments,
they are also using the cloud to make it easy for
students and teachers to access district resources from
any device. New cloud-based administrative solutions
are intended to decrease teachers’ workloads by
eliminating paperwork while making it easier for them
to keep track of student progress and data securely
from any device.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
According to CDW-G’s 2013 State of the Cloud Report, 42%
of K-12 schools and organizations surveyed are currently
implementing some form of cloudcomputing solution;the
top uses are for storage, conferencing and collaboration,
and for office suite management. Cloud-based offerings
such as email, video and other hosting services;
subscription-based software tools; and a wide choice of
collaborative applications take the pressure off of schools
to continually update their machines and software.
One of the most common uses of cloud computing
technology in the classroom over the past couple years
has been the integration of cloud-based tools such
as Google Apps into the K-12 curriculum. Web-based
applications work in any browser and offer a deviceagnostic
place for project materials, submissions, and
assignments. Today’s cloud infrastructure includes a
wide array of tools and services that make it easy for
anyone to share media and materials. Khan Academy,
for example, was among the first educational initiatives
to take advantage of the incredible infrastructure
behind YouTube to host its video lessons for free.
Additionally, many distance-learning programs
are implementing cloud computing solutions to
accommodate increasing enrollment and provide more
media-rich resources to students in remote or rural areas.
In Wisconsin, for example, over 2,000 students across 39
K-12 districts are enrolled in dozens of online coursesthat
make use of a cloud-based video management system
that automates uploading. The system makes it easy for
teachersto create a video-based curriculum orimplement
a flipped classroom model. go.nmc.org/ensem
Cloud-based solutions for schools have grown
more intricate as technology providers collaborate
on systems that prepare students for the modern
workforce. In the Prince George County Public School
System in Maryland, for instance, high school students
and teachers are piloting a STEM Innovation Cloud,
designed by Lockheed Martin in partnership with Cisco
Systems, Inc., that will create equitable access to STEM
resources. The STEM curriculum will include videos
of discovery-based classroom experiences, as well as
career simulations that can be delivered via mobile
devices. go.nmc.org/lock
Similarly, virtual laboratory sites can be hosted in the
cloud, increasing the accessibility of lab equipment
to under-resourced districts. iLabCentral, for example,
is home to more than 7,000 experiments that can
be accessed from any device (go.nmc.org/ilabs). The
emergence of cloud-centric mobile devices such as
Google’s Chromebook, an inexpensive laptop that relies
on ubiquitous connectivity and cloud-based software
and storage, is ushering in a newera of equity and access.
In April 2013, Malaysia announced its national plan
The placement of cloud computing
on the near-term horizon for a
second time underscores that the
impact of this technology continues
to unfold in new and expanding ways.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 13
to deploy Google’s Chromebooks in primary and
secondary schools throughout the country. They
join the Philippines as a nation that has embraced
Chromebooks’ cloud-based software and hardware
to reform their educational system. Currently, more
than 3,000 schools across the world are exclusively
employing Chromebooks, a technology strategy that
makes the web crucial for learning. go.nmc.org/mala
In addition to formal learning experiences, cloud
computing enablesrich informal learning opportunities.
Sugata Mitra, 2013 TED Prize winner and scientist,
outlined a compelling vision of this era in his recent
TED Talk (go.nmc.org/sugata). Mitra’s observation that
children can essentially organize their own learning
led to the notion of “Schools in the Cloud,” which are
essentially learning facilities in impoverished regions
of the world that can be operated entirely in the cloud,
including lights, locks, and infrastructure. These schools
could be a low-cost supplement to formal education,
and a place where children can pursue their own
inquiries.
A sampling of applications of cloud computing across
disciplines includes the following:
> Language. The cloud-based Electronic Learning
Organizer helps language teachers produce and share
digital learning objects and activitiesfortheirstudents.
The learning objects are created by the teacher, or
assembled from a resource repository created by other
teachersin the network: go.nmc.org/elo.
> Science. California State University Northridge
launched the Computer Supported Collaborative
Science initiative to help science teachers in highneed
Los Angeles area schools to engage students
in authentic research experiences through the use of
cloud-based tools: go.nmc.org/sci.
> Social Studies. Powered by cloud computing,
the Global Curriculum Project allows students to
participate in a virtual exchange program with
schools across five different countries. Students
select and explore their own topics, including cuisine
and ambitions: go.nmc.org/curric.
Cloud Computing in Practice
The following links provide examples of cloud
computing in use in K-12 education settings:
Chromebooks and One-to-One
go.nmc.org/chrmbk
At South Bay Middle School in California, a new
Chromebook one-to-one policy has been implemented.
School administrators cite that the accessibility of
Google’s cloud-based tools have made learning and
assignment grading a nearly paperless process.
ClassLink at Buffalo Public Schools (PDF)
go.nmc.org/buf
Buffalo Public Schools in New York use a cloud-based
environment called ClassLink that allows students,
parents, and faculty to access a shared desktop from
anywhere or any device with Internet access.
Edmonton Public School Google Apps & Privacy
go.nmc.org/edm
In Canada, Edmonton Public Schools have created an
informative page on Google’s privacy policy and how
this affects students and the school’s use of the Google
Apps. Other schools looking to integrate Google Apps
can access their website to get information on email
privacy and security tips for various grade levels.
FlexiSAF School Management System
go.nmc.org/gafrica
Using the Google Web Toolkit, Nigerian developers
converted an administrative management application
from its desktop version to a web-based version in
order to help K-12 administrators efficiently manage
school records. The new software is currently impacting
70 public and 30 private schoolsin Nigeria and willsoon
be offered to other African countries.
Middle School Using Cloud Computer for Down-toEarth
Education
go.nmc.org/hobart
At Hobart Middle School in Indiana, students use
cloud-based services and tools, such as Google Drive,
Facebook, and Twitter, to keep up with their classwork
at home. Using these platforms and others has helped
teachers provide students with real-time feedback.
Moving to Cloud Computing at St Thomas’s Church
of England Primary School
go.nmc.org/stthom
A school in Northwest England has transitioned to
cloud computing for their technological infrastructure,
making it possible for students to connect to Internet
applications within seconds. The entire research and
methodology of the move is documented via their
Wikispace.
Multiseat Computing at Lakeside School, Costa Rica
go.nmc.org/lakeside
To increase the reach and power of their computers,
the founders of Lakeside School in Costa Rica selected
a Linux cloud-based solution that maintains an entire
lab of workstations using just three computers. As a
result of the new system, the school will save money on
hardware and support costs, as well as enough energy
to power 21 homes over three years.
Nokia Mobile Mathematics
go.nmc.org/momaths
Already implemented by 200 schools in South Africa,
this project by Nokia offers free math lessons for grades
10-12 using a cloud service that can be accessed via
web browser on any computer or mobile device.
Students can test themselves continuously and receive
instant feedback on their answers — even outside of
the classroom.
St. Columba Anglican School and Chromebooks
go.nmc.org/colum
St. Columba Anglican School in Port Macquarie is one of
the first schools in Australia to incorporate Chromebooks
as part of its transition to the cloud to complement its
BYOT policy. For their pilot, they have purchased 60
Chromebooksto be shared among studentsin grades K-5.
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about cloud
computing:
Cloud Computing to Make Up 35% of K-12 IT Budgets
in 4 Years
go.nmc.org/bud
(David Nagel, The Journal, 19 February 2013.) According
to a study released by CDW-G, storage is the top
application of cloud computing used in K-12 education,
followed by conferencing, collaboration, and finally
office and productivity tools. K-12 schools expect to
save 20% of the IT budget in the coming year by using
cloud services and the costs will consume 35% of the
entire IT budget.
Cloudy With a Chance of Data
go.nmc.org/govcl
(Richard Culatta, U.S. Department of Education, 17 April
2013.) The Deputy Director of the Office of Educational
Technology describes what it means to store data in
the cloud. He gives a thorough overview of how the
cloud works and touches on the legal issues regarding
protecting student data.
Districts Move to the Cloud to Power Up, Save
Money
go.nmc.org/dis
(Mike Bock, Education Week, 6 February 2013.) This
article covers how the Chicago public school system
is using Google Apps to reduce financial burdens.
They are also making use of free programs, including a
cloud-based remote laboratory, instead of purchasing
expensive science equipment.
Industry Perspective: Accelerate Education With
Open Source Cloud Techs
go.nmc.org/accel
(David Egts, Government Technology, 26 February 2013.)
This article cites cloud computing asinstrumental to the
evolution of online learning, including massive open
online courses and video lecture platforms such as the
Khan Academy.
14 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
42% of K-12 schools and
organizations surveyed are currently
implementing some form of cloud
computing solution.
Microsoft Office 365 or Google Apps for Education:
Which Way Do You Go?
go.nmc.org/mic
(DavidWeldon, The Journal,
3 April 2013.)Two education
systems adopted different cloud platforms to provide
remote access, save money in licensing fees, and help
students share their work. The state of Oregon is two
years into the first statewide rollout of Google Apps for
Education, while last year, the Clarksville-Montgomery
County School System became the first countywide
school district to launch Microsoft Office 365 for
Education.
Schools Move Security to the Cloud
go.nmc.org/sec
(Steve Zurier, EdTech Magazine
, 13 February 2013.) The
Kings County Office of Education in California along
with Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School have decided
to implement SaaS solutions, allowing IT to centrally
manage security of an array of devices often accessed
remotely. Such cloud-based services also allow multiple
devices to be updated through one central action.
What Is a Unified Cloud, and Why Are Schools
Choosing to Build Them?
go.nmc.org/unify
(Wylie Wong, EdTech Magazine
,
2 April 2013.) Several
districts and schools have adopted unified cloud
strategies in order to increase efficiency and gain easier
access to resources, aligning with the trends indicated
in the CDW-G 2013 State of the Cloud Report
.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 15
eople increasingly expect to be connected
to the Internet and the rich tapestry of
knowledge it contains wherever they go.
Mobile devices, including smartphones and
tablets, enable users to do just that via cellular
networks and wireless power. The growing number of
mobile subscribers, coupled with the unprecedented
evolution of these devices, has opened the door to
myriad uses for education. Learning institutions
all over the world are exploring ways to make their
websites, educational materials, resources, and
opportunities all available online and optimized for
mobile devices. The most compelling facet of mobile
learning right now is mobile apps. Smartphones
and tablets have redefined what we mean by mobile
computing, and in the past four to five years, apps
have become a hotbed of development, resulting in
a plethora of learning and productivity apps. These
tools, ranging from annotation and mind-mapping
apps to apps that allow users to explore outer space
or get an in-depth look at complex chemicals, enable
users to learn and experience new concepts wherever
they are, often across multiple devices.
Overview
After years of anticipation, mobile learning is positioned
for near-term and widespread adoption in schools.
Tablets, smartphones, and mobile apps have become
too capable, too ubiquitous, and too useful to ignore,
and their distribution defies traditional patterns of
adoption, both by consumers, where even economically
disadvantaged families find waysto make use of mobile
technology, and in schools, where the tide of opinion
has dramatically shifted when it comes to mobiles in
schools.
At the end of 2012, the mobile market consisted of over
6.5 billion accounts, and subscriptions are expected by
ICT’s Facts and Figuresreportto equal close to theworld’s
population by the end of 2013. This equates to about
3.4 billion users, or nearly one of every two people on
the planet. The portability of mobile devices, coupled
with increasingly fast web and cellular connectivity,
make mobiles extremely conducive to productivity
and learning. This year, mobile traffic on the Internet is
expected to surpass desktop traffic. The Internet itself is
becoming a mobile network.
Furthermore, the incredible diversity of mobile apps
has expanded the capabilities of mobile devices
enormously — and people love them. ABI Research
estimated mobile users will download 70 billion apps
in 2013 across smartphones and tablets — or more
than 10 apps per each human being on Earth. In April
2013, 148Apps reported that educational apps were
the second most downloaded in iTunes of all of the
categories — surpassing both entertainment and
business apps in popularity. One of the fastest growing
categories is apps for very young learners. A special
report, iLearn II: An Analysis of the Education Category on
Apple’s App Store, noted that over 80% of educational
apps specifically target children.
Mobiles are also a significant distribution channel for
magazines and e-books, which has made the platform
appealing to major education publishers. Pearson,
among many others, is designing textbooks and other
resources with interactive elements optimized for
mobile devices. Tablets, such as the iPad, Samsung
Galaxy, Nexus, and Surface, are exceptionally effective
at displaying e-books and other visual content. They
serve as conveniently sized video players with instant
access to an enormous library of content; real-time
two-way video conferencing tools; increasingly highresolution
still and video cameras; fast, easy email and
web browsers; and rich, full-featured game platforms. A
16 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Mobile Learning
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less
P
swipe, a tap, or a pinch allows the user to interact with
the device in completely new ways that are so intuitive
and simple they require no manuals or instructions.
Ultimately, one of the biggest appeals of mobiles is
that they naturally encourage exploration — a notion
that is easily demonstrated by placing a device in the
hands of a small child. Whether it’s connecting with new
people via social media or discovering local resources
recommended by an app, mobiles provide people with
constant opportunities to act upon their curiosities and
expand their knowledge.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
Because of their portability, flexibility, and natural,
intuitive interfaces, mobiles are especially enticing to
schools, and a growing number of them have turned
to tablets as a cost-effective strategy for one-to-one
learning — a systemic solution in which every student is
provided a device that can be used to support learning
in and outside of the classroom. In many regions of
the world, students come to class already familiar and
comfortable with the technology. At the end of 2012,
the Daily Mail reported that 75% of ten-year-olds in the
UK, for example, own a mobile device, and the global
average is approaching 50%.
In a one-to-one pilot at Justin-Siena High School in
California, every student will be receiving an iPad during
fall orientation (go.nmc.org/Justin). Students have
expressed excitement about having fewer textbooks to
carry and teachers are looking forward to the improved
Internet access; they will no longer have to make
reservations and confine learners to the computer
lab. One teacher plans to have students use the iPads
to record themselves during presentations to become
better public speakers.
Consumer Reportsrecently cited that 60% of U.S. parents
of children ages eight to 12 have provided their children
with mobile phones. In many educational settings, the
primary challenge for making use of these devicesisthe
schools’mobile use policies, but thisis changing quickly.
A key driver of that change is the move to BYOD (“Bring
Your Own Device”), which many schools are already
piloting. BYOD addresses many interesting pedagogical
goals, but also a key financial issue — the lack of funds
to support one-to-one learning. BYOD makes oneto-one
easier by simply leveraging the devices that
students already have.
In just one of many possible examples, the School Board
of Fayette County Schools in Kentucky has approved
BYOD in allsecondary schools aftersuccessful junior high
and high school pilotsin 2011 and 2012.The deviceswere
found to bring out each student’s unique abilities, and
foster more collaboration and better communication.
Students were more engaged with each other and in the
material being taught. go.nmc.org/fay
According to current ASTD research, the top uses of
mobiles in learning are easily accessing reference
materials, supporting student performance, and
watching videos. Furthermore, when they are equipped
with an array of apps, cameras, sensors, and other
built-in tools, students are able to explore specific
locations and record their experiences via photographs,
videos, and audio recordings. For example, Greenridge
Primary School piloted the Singapore Zoo’s River
Safari app, which uses location-based and image
recognition technology to better acquaint students
with surrounding wildlife (go.nmc.org/lgork). Similarly,
at Ryan Elementary in Colorado, students use iPads to
go on digital scavenger hunts using Google Earth, to
create digitalstories using cartoon apps. A teacher there
reports she likes the way the iPads encourage students
to troubleshoot learning obstacles and collaborate with
each other. go.nmc.org/Rya
While one-to-one and BYOD programs are still
relatively new, there are a number of organizations and
institutions dedicated to exploring their outcomes and
dreaming up new uses for mobile devices. UNESCO’s
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 17
Tablets, smartphones, and mobile
apps have become too capable, too
ubiquitous, and too useful to ignore.
Mobile Education Lab is a creative organization that
promotesthe discovery and invention of digital content
for exploring the potential of mobile technology
in education (go.nmc.org/mel). Abilene Christian
University (ACU) has led an ongoing mobile learning
research initiative and revealed compelling results,
including increased student engagement, teacher
and student innovation, and teamwork (go.nmc.org/
acumlr).NorthdaleMiddle School inMinnesota reported
that tablets and apps have helped students with severe
cognitive and development disabilities better grasp
vocabulary words and gain more confidence. go.nmc.
org/corap
A sampling of mobile learning applications across
disciplines includes the following:
> Mathematics. Year four students at St Leonard’s
College, a primary school in Australia, are using tablets
loaded with math apps and e-textbooks to access
information,receive instruction,recordmeasurements,
and conduct research: go.nmc.org/stle.
> Music. Students at Institut International de Lancy in
Switzerland use their tablets to create music in the
school’s first iPad Orchestra. The iPads have provided
opportunities for students with little or no musical
training to create their own music with classmates:
go.nmc.org/iil.
> Storytelling. Ringwood North Primary School in
Australia participated in “The Epic Citadel Challenge.”
Teachers and students collaborated to write a digital
story based on the Epic Citadel environment, which
they turned into an app that can be accessed via iOS
mobile device: go.nmc.org/stor.
Mobile Learning in Practice
The following links provide examples of mobile learning
in use in K-12 education settings:
BYOD Lessons
go.nmc.org/sou
At South Middle School in Kentucky, students must
take an online course about Internet safety before they
are able to use their own devices in class. One way that
students use their mobilesisto text answers to multiple
choice questions posed during a lesson, giving teachers
instant insight into whether extra time is needed for a
topic.
The Global Enterprise Mobile Alliance
go.nmc.org/vcxdl
Multi-media service (MMS) providerNavita launched the
Global Enterprise Mobile Alliance, a coalition of seven
MMS providers who are working together to make
BYOD a reality for Brazilian businesses and students.
iPads in Australian Special Education
go.nmc.org/spe
The use of iPads for special education has been tested
in various locations across Australia, most significantly
in Victoria at Warringa Park School. Results indicate
the devices were useful in facilitating individualized
learning both within the classroom and out in the
community. Apps led students through exercises that
helped develop fine motor control, vocabulary, speech,
and design skills.
iPads at ZIS International School
go.nmc.org/ZIS
Students at ZIS International School in Switzerland use
iPads as video cameras, audio recorders, and multimedia
notebooks to capture learning experiences for their
personal blogs and digital portfolios.
Mobile Learning at Lee’s Summit
go.nmc.org/leesum
Lee’s Summit R-7 School District in Missouri created a
web page with mobile learning resources, including
apps, to promote the creative use of mobile devices for
in-classroom and on-the-go learning.
New Trier’s Mobile Learning Initiative
go.nmc.org/ntthsd
New Trier Township High School District in Illinois
launched the Mobile Learning Initiative to evaluate the
effectiveness of tablets for teaching and learning. Early
reports cite improved student organization.
18 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about mobile learning:
17 Ways iPads Will be Used in Schools in 2013
go.nmc.org/17ways
(Roger Riddell, Education Dive, 12 February 2013.)
Education Dive exploresiPad pilotsthat are underway at
various institutions, describing how the mobile devices
are expected to replace textbooks in some schools
and to broadcast lessons to rural areas with teacher
shortages.
For Low-Income Kids, Access to Devices Could Be
the Equalizer
go.nmc.org/equ
(Tina Barseghian, MindShift, 13 May 2013.) Access to
devices is noticeably different between higher and
lower income schools; 52% of teachers of upper and
upper-middle income students say their students
use cell phones to look up information in class,
compared with 35% of teachers of the lowest income
students.
Mobile Device Smack Down
go.nmc.org/sma
(Jennifer Magiera, EdReach, 12 April 2013.) This podcast
explores why certain mobile devices are better choices
than others for the classroom, how purchasing
and downloading apps to multiple devices works,
and describes syncing solutions and current tech
requirements for Common Core assessments.
Mobile Learning: 5 Advantages and 5 Disadvantages
go.nmc.org/mobile5
(Mashii Hajim, Edudemic, 28 December 2012.) Positive
outcomes of mobile learning include increased
engagement and wider accessto educational resources.
The author cites cost and battery life among the
potential negatives.
Mobile Learning Support for New Teachers
go.nmc.org/lisad
(Lisa Michelle Dabbs, Edutopia, 10 October 2012.) This
article provides a framework for mobile learning for new
teachers or schools considering mobile learning, such
as developing responsible use policies and planning
mobile activities with students.
Schools Set Boundaries for Use of Students’ Digital
Devices
go.nmc.org/bou
(Robin L. Flanigan, Education Week, 7 February 2013.)
Schools in Minnesota, Georgia, and Texas have
implemented successful BYOD initiatives and discuss
how their infrastructures and policies work to support
thestudentsintheirlearning,butstillproviderestrictions
to counter the safety and security challenges.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 19
The portability of mobile devices,
coupled with increasingly fast web
and cellular connectivity, make
mobiles extremely conducive to
productivity and learning. The
Internet itself is becoming a mobile
network.
earning analytics is education’s approach to “big
data,” a science that was originally leveraged
by businesses to analyze commercial activities,
identify spending trends, and predict consumer
behavior. The rise of the Internet drove research
into big data and metrics as well as the proliferation
of web tracking tools, enabling companies to build
vast reserves of information they could study and
leverage in their marketing campaigns. Education
is embarking on a similar pursuit into data science
with the aim of improving student retention and
providing a high quality, personalized experience
for learners. Learning analytics research uses data
analysis to inform decisions made on every tier of the
educational system. Whereas analysts in business
use consumer data to target potential customers and
personalize advertising, learning analytics leverages
student data to build better pedagogies, target
at-risk student populations, and assess whether
programs designed to improve retention have been
effective and should be sustained — outcomes for
legislators and administrators that have profound
impact. For educators and researchers, learning
analytics has been crucial to gaining insights about
student interaction with online texts and courseware.
Students are beginning to experience the benefits of
learning analytics as they engage with mobile and
online platforms that track data to create responsive,
personalized learning experiences.
Overview
Positioned in the mid-term horizon, learning analytics
is gaining visibility as converging technologies bolster
mobile and online learning trends. Initially explored for
marketing purposes, the science of analytics is focused
on tracking user behaviors online in order to decipher
prevalent patterns and make predictions about
consumer spending habits. Big data are now being
used to personalize every experience users have online
on commercial websites, and education administrators,
major IT companies, and venture capitalists are seeing
clearly analytics’ potential for improving the learning
environment.
The essential idea behind learning analytics is to use
data and analyses to adapt instruction to individual
learner needs in real time, in the same way that
Amazon, Netflix, and Google use metrics to tailor
recommendations and advertisements to consumers.
Applied analytics can help transform education from
a standard one-size-fits-all delivery system into a
responsive and flexible framework, catered to meet
the students’ academic needs and interests. Important
information can be gleaned from student work in
online environments and leveraged to design adaptive
software — programs that make carefully calculated
adjustments and suggestions to keep learners
motivated as they master concepts or encounter
stumbling blocks.
Learning analytics also offers insights that inform
and educate every tier of the educational system.
Visualizations and analytical reports have the empirical
weight needed to guide administrative and governing
bodies as they target areas for improvement, allocate
resources, and assess the effectiveness of programs.
inBloom Inc. has had a large part in connecting learning
analytics to education reform, and is gaining visibility
as a major stakeholder. Started with seed funding from
the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Carnegie
Corporation of New York, inBloom offers data storage,
content and open source tools to help districts make
personalized learning real for students in the nine
states it counts as its partners (go.nmc.org/inbloom).
In March 2013, inBloom was given the responsibility
20 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Learning Analytics
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
L
of maintaining a $100 million data warehouse, a
collaborative project between the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and
school officials from various states. This pool of data
houses the files of millions of students in the public
school system; inBloom will develop portals to allow
mining of those data for a variety of purposes.
In addition to funding inBloom’s endeavor, the Gates
Foundation has also contributed $70 million in grantsto
schools and companies that are developing other sorts
of personalized learning tools. Venture capitalists are
investing in this sector with enthusiasm; in 2012, K-12
schools attracted over $425 million worth of deals and
investments, according to a report by the New Schools
Venture Fund. go.nmc.org/datab
This work is not taking place without some serious
concerns being expressed over the safety of students
and their information, but projects like these represent
a significantshift in the way policy and other leaders are
looking at what can be learned from the information we
capture about students and learning. Such high-profile
projects will ensure that attention remains focused on
both the potential and challenges of big data analytics
in education.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
Schools that rely on the cloud for better, more stable
infrastructures are making BYOD and one-to-one a
reality for a greater number of students. As a result,
online learning, and subsequently, learning analytics are
getting much closer to becoming a standard practice
across education. Web-based software and tracking
tools are giving teachers a closer look into the learning
activities of their students, while districts are using
data and analytics to inform their decision-making.
In all of these scenarios, learning analytics make data
an integral part of planning, designing and assessing
learning experiences.
Analytics platforms are becoming increasingly complex
and effective. GuideK12, for example, is a web-based
geovisual analytics tool that was originally designed
for the U.S. Census Bureau to visualize terabytes of
data in government datasets of all kinds. Repurposed
for education, GuideK12 software has helped districts
in Louisiana, Florida, and North Dakota gain access to
numerous filters, geographic visualizations, and reports
to make impactful decision-making a transparent,
scientific process. go.nmc.org/guide
These and other states in the U.S. are working closely
with IT solution providers to establish comprehensive
data systems with the intention of optimizing taxpayer
spending and streamlining the administrative flow
of data. The Michigan Department of Education, for
example, has partnered with Intel to update their
analytics system in efforts to improve students’
academic performance, inform budget and planning
committees, and help administrators track and utilize
their assets. go.nmc.org/mich
Meanwhile, as more teachers incorporate web-based
software and online resources into their curricula, it
has become increasingly difficult to track an individual
student’s progress, much less an entire class, when data
is coming from multiple websites.Developers are finding
ways to resolve this issue by integrating information
from disparate online learning platforms into a single
interface, or dashboard. Among the first of its kind,
AlwaysPrepped is a free online tool that connects with
educational websites like Khan Academy, Engrade, and
Socrative, providing teachers with a single place to view
individual and class progress. go.nmc.org/prepp
Learning analytics is also being used to detect patterns
in student behavior that can help educators identify
learning issues early enough to craft and implement
solutions. More than 50 schools in Louisiana are using
data management systems from Kickboard, a company
that specializes in dashboards where teachers can keep
track of student behavior, attitudes, and performance on
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 21
Learning analytics make data an
integral part of planning, designing
and assessing learning experiences.
a daily basis.The appeal ofthissoftware isthatthe system
can be accessed in real-time, helping teachers evaluate
the fluctuating progress of individuals and classes in the
cultural context of the school. go.nmc.org/kick
A sampling of applications of learning analytics across
disciplines includes the following:
> Mathematics. Developed by a group of educators,
programmers, and data scientists, Mathspace is
an online program that meets the demands of the
NSW Syllabus and Australian National Curriculum
for students age seven to ten. The platform monitors
how students reason through math problems and
provides personalized feedback as well as analytics
reports for teachers: go.nmc.org/mathsp.
> Reading. Kno, an e-textbook company, launched
the “Kno Me” tool, which provides students with
insights into their study habits and behaviors while
using e-textbooks. Students can also better pace
themselves by looking at data that shows them how
much time has been spent working through specific
texts, and where they are in relation to their goals:
go.nmc.org/kno.
> Special Education. Constant Therapy is a mobile
platform that leverages data analytics and mobile
technology to provide personalized therapy for
people with cognitive, language, communication
and learning disorders. With 15 years’ worth of
content developed by Boston University, Constant
Therapy’slessons adapt to meet the needs of learners
while allowing language educators to monitor their
progress via an analytics dashboard: go.nmc.org/
constant.
Learning Analytics in Practice
The following links provide examples of learning
analytics in use in K-12 education settings:
Adventures in “Playlisting”
go.nmc.org/summ
At Summit Public Schools in New Jersey, teachers
create playlists that drive their students’ personalized
learning experiences. Illuminate Education provides
an integrated student information system that allows
teachers to create online formative assessments within
each Playlist to receive pre- and post-assessment data
and give students immediate feedback.
Citelighter
go.nmc.org/cit
Citelightersoftware helpsstudents better organize their
research and streamline their writing process. It also
provides analytics that pinpoint and diagnose problem
areas, allowing them to improve their writing over time.
Learning Catalytics
go.nmc.org/cataly
Recently acquired by Pearson, Learning Catalytics is a
cloud-based learning analytics and assessment system
developed by Harvard University professors that allows
teachers to ask their students open-ended critical
thinking questions and receive feedback in real-time.
It also enables students to be grouped together with
other students sharing similar abilities. Pearson now
plans to integrate a solid student response layer into
their interactive education products.
Real-Time Assessment of Standards-Based
Declarative and Procedural Knowledge
go.nmc.org/bclnm
Rancocas Valley Regional High School in New Jersey
is piloting a learning analytics program to determine
whether immediate feedback provided to students will
improve their performance with respect to targeted
standards and learning outcomes — regardless of other
intervening factors such as gender, socioeconomic
status, or learning disabilities.
Schoology Learning Analytics (video)
go.nmc.org/fla
High school Spanish teacher Matthew Day uses
Schoology in his flipped classroom so he can see
how many attempts students have made before they
were able to achieve a high score on their homework
assignments.
22 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
23
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about learning
analytics:
Emerging Opportunities in K-12 Learning Analytics
(video)
go.nmc.org/royla
(Roy Pea, MediaX Stanford, 8 January 2013.) In this video
from the MediaX 2013 Conference, Roy Pea shares why
data and learning analytics are needed in building
today’s K-12 personalized learning at scale. His talk
addresses new tools and approaches for the further
development of learning analytics.
Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through
Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics:
An Issue Brief
go.nmc.org/enh
(Marie Bienkowski, Mingyu Feng, Barbara Means,
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational
Technology, October 2012.) This report covers data
analytics and data mining in the commercial world and
how similar techniques are applied in education. It also
addresses the challenges and potential of such efforts
for improving student outcomes.
Hope Battles Fear Over Student Data Integration
go.nmc.org/hop
(DavidF.Carr, Information Week, 26March2013.)Because
learning analytics relies on data collection, fears of data
misuse and privacy issues are a major hurdle in its
implementation. This article highlights the complaints
parents have raised against a particular student data
integration service, which seeks to free data from
proprietary tools so it can be used for personalizing
education.
If You Like Learning, Could I Recommend Analytics?
go.nmc.org/elit
(Bill Jerome, e-Literate, 24 March 2013.) The author
discusses the differences in the analytics strategy of
companies such as Amazon, Netflix, and Google, as well
as exploring algorithms for education analytics that
schools could employ.
Learning and Knowledge Analytics (PDF)
go.nmc.org/laknow
(George Siemens and Dragan Gasevic, Journal of
Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 15, No. 3, July
2012.) In a special edition of the Journal, seminal
learning analytics experts George Siemens and Dragan
Gasevic discussthe maturation of learning analytics and
its impact on education.
The Upside and Dark Side of Collecting Student Data
go.nmc.org/upside
(Katrina Schwartz, MindShift, 11 February 2013.) The
author describes how learning analytics can provide
data that helps educators better tailor learning
experiences to individual students, but also cautions
against companies who are using data collection to
track children’s activities.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
he movement toward open content reflects a
growing shift in the way scholars in many parts
of the world are conceptualizing education to a
view that is more about the process of learning
than the information conveyed. Information
is everywhere; the challenge is to make effective
use of it. Open content uses Creative Commons and
other forms of alternative licensing to encourage
not only the sharing of information, but the sharing
of pedagogies and experiences as well. Part of the
appeal of open content is that it is a response to both
the rising costs of traditionally published resources
and the lack of educational resources in some regions.
As this open, customizable content — and insights
about how to teach and learn with it — is increasingly
made available for free over the Internet, people
are learning not only the material, but also the skills
related to finding, evaluating, interpreting, and
repurposing the resources. Recent data from Edcetera
indicate that open educational resources make up
three quarters of the content in most MOOCs; paid
content, such as required textbooks, is less than 10%.
These data reflect a notable transformation in the
culture surrounding open content that will continue
to impact how we think about content production,
sharing, and learning.
Overview
Open content, as it is described here, has its roots in a
number of seminal efforts, including the Open Content
Project, MIT’s Open Courseware Initiative (OCW), the
Open Knowledge Foundation, and work by the William
and Flora Hewlett Foundation, among others. Many of
these projectsfocused on creating collections ofsharable
resources and on devising licenses and metadata
schemata. The era of Creative Commons has established
recognized alternative licensing standards, which
promote and protect the work of authors and producers
under the rights that materials can be shared and
distributed openly. This environment has produced an
expansive network of education collaborators—teachers
who are creating, adapting, and sharing media — and
numerousrepositories brimming with rich content.
While work in universities paved the way for open
content to find traction in the classroom, its recent
entrance into the K-12 sector is partly rooted in the
financial benefits. Open textbooks have proven to be
worthy competitors to standardized textbooks, forcing
manufacturerstoofferdigital, customizable alternatives.
An added result is the surge of educational enterprises
that are providing easy to use platforms for the creation
of open source texts and curricula centered on open
resources. Apple’s iTunes U, for example, enables
educators from every sector to build courses online
using the iTunes U Course Manager, which offers access
to over 500,000 free public resources (go.nmc.org/
itunesu). Not-for-profit repositories such as Wikibooks
(go.nmc.org/wikibooks) are building ever-growing
platforms that feature free, open source textbooks that
are easy to find.
This philosophy of open content and open education
acknowledgesthatinformation is notthe only useful and
distributable commodity among educators. Insight and
experience can also be collected and shared. Equipped
with web-based tools and a better understanding of
alternative licensing, educators are more confident
about creating and disseminating their own educational
resources. Support for these educators is offered by a
number of foundations and initiatives that promote
the personalization of education through customized
content. The Orange Grove, a digital repository of
educational open content based out of Florida, for
example, has a dedicated YouTube channel with
animations that help educators understand the proper
24 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Open Content
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
T
protocol for creating, remixing, and licensing their own
open educational resources. go.nmc.org/orange
As open content prompts dialog among educators and
administrators in K-12 schools, there is much discussion
about what is required to scale open resources. Typical
business models for open content developers reflect
those of non-profit organizations, foundations, or other
grant or donation dependent institutions, though there
are other paths to sustainability. Some open-content
providers have explored modelsthat offer opportunities
for sponsorship, membership fees, and customer or
premium services. Seeking partnerships with textbook
publishersis also proving to be a sustainable avenue for
content producers.
Meanwhile,opencontenthas achievedglobalrecognition
as an effective means of distributing high-quality,
accessible educational materials to schools in both
developed and developing countries. In many parts of
the world, national and state governments have allotted
funds to support open content initiatives in education.
In Latin America, for example, the governments of
Colombia andUruguay have launched strategic initiatives
that incorporate the production and management of
open educational resources. Similarly, in the eastern
Pacific, Indonesia and Australia have also committed to
developing frameworks to deliver open content in order
to meet the needs of widely dispersed populations (go.
nmc.org/surv). Likewise, in the United States, the most
recent National Education Technology Plan put forth
by President Obama’s administration promotes the
development of open content to create more innovative
and accessible opportunitiesfor learners.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
The use of open content promotes a set ofskillsthat are
critical in maintaining currency in any area of study —
the ability to find, evaluate, and put new information to
use. The same cannot be said for many textbooks, which
can be cumbersome, unchanging, and particularly
costly for K-12 schools. Educators are taking advantage
of open resources to expand their curricula with mediarich
tools and texts that can be used and adapted to
specific lessons. Formerly bound by the framework
of standardized course materials, teachers now have
access to a wealth of digital information that they can
use to meet district expectations.
In schools, digital textbooks have been the most widely
used open educational resource, as projects have been
launched to address the high cost and shortages of
hardbound materials. For example, founded in 2001, the
California Open Source Textbook Project established a
precedent as a sustainable source of high-quality digital
content that adheresto state mandated K-12 curriculum
standards. go.nmc.org/opsctxt
A similar initiative in Utah propelled the adoption of
open textbooks for K-12 throughout the state. In 2012,
the Utah State Office of Education announced that it
would begin developing Utah-specific open textbooks
for secondary education with the intention that schools
across the state would be using the first texts by 2013.
Similarly, institutions in the state, such as the public
charter school Open High School of Utah, are being
founded with a mission to teach 21st century skills
using a curriculum based on open content (go.nmc.org/
ophigh). For schools that have not yet developed open
texts for their students, organizations such as the CK-12
Foundation offer free resources. Their FlexBook System
is an online platform that helps educators assemble,
author, and distribute media-rich digital books. go.nmc.
org/ck12found
While open content has been available for a long time,
the topic has received increased attention in recent
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 25
Open content has achieved global
recognition as an effective means of
distributing high-quality, accessible
educational materials to schools
in both developed and developing
countries.
years. The flipped classroom model, for instance,
encourages more teachersto create videos or use media
developed and shared by their colleagues for students
to explore outside of the classroom. As a result, more
educators are tapping into the wealth of content within
open repositories as well as familiarizing themselves
with the Creative Commons licensing protocol.
As more learning takes place on mobile platforms in
informal settings, open content can be leveraged to
design and equip the personal learning environments
of lifelong learners. The Responsive Open Learning
Environments (ROLE) project, a collaborative project
supported by the European Commission, promotes
the idea of self-regulated learning, or making students
responsible for their own learning activities by showing
them how to use technology and open resources.
Because ROLE’s framework is open source, tools and
materials created by individuals can be added to a
pool of resources that all institutions can benefit from.
go.nmc.org/role
A sampling of applications of open content across
disciplines includes the following:
> History. Learn NC is a program of the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Education to
make resources and best practices in K-12 freely and
widely available. Their digital textbook for eighth
grade history contains a collection of primary sources,
readings, and multimedia that can be searched and
rearranged: go.nmc.org/nch.
> Mathematics. Arizona instructor James Sousa has
beenteachingmathfor 15 years atboththe community
college and K-12 levels. He has developed more than
2,600 video tutorials on topics from arithmetic to
calculus, which are licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution license: go.nmc.org/sousa.
> Science. A partnership between Brigham Young
University’s David Wiley and the Hewlett Foundation
sparked a project in which teachers from 18 districts
and four charter schools across Utah pulled together
science resources to create free digital textbooks:
go.nmc.org/uta.
Open Content in Practice
The following links provide examples of open content in
use in K-12 education settings:
Curriki
go.nmc.org/curriki
Curriki is a nonprofit aimed at creating a global
community for sharing curriculum and best practices in
K-12. Over 46,000 resources contributed by educators,
partners, and parents are available through the site,
organized by topic and rated by users.
Gooru
go.nmc.org/gooru
Gooru is a STEM education research, search, and
curation portal that relies on crowd sourcing and
collective intelligence. A team of educators is tagging
curated teaching resources at the conceptual level. They
identify factually correct, image-rich web content that
can aid students and teachers when they are learning
about a specific subject, such as velocity.
Mathematics Vision Project
go.nmc.org/matvis
The Mathematics Vision Project, in partnership with
the Utah State Office of Education, provides sequenced
curriculum modules for mathematics. Using a Creative
Commons 3.0 license, the material can be shared and
remixed with proper attribution.
MERLOT
go.nmc.org/merlot
MERLOT, a multimedia educational resource for online
learning, is a California State University program that
houses a collection of open learning materials from
a range of disciplines, including English, physics, and
world languages.
Open Textbooks in Poland
go.nmc.org/polandoer
The Office of the Polish Prime Minister implemented
the biggest governmental open educational resources
initiative in that nation to date, mandating opencontent
textbooks for grades four through six.
26 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
27
Share My Lesson
go.nmc.org/myless
Share My Lesson is an online community where
educators can access and exchange educational
resources. Registered users can search by grade,
discipline, or topic, and connect with others through
discussion forums.
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about open content.
80 Open Education Resource (OER) Tools for
Publishing and Development Initiatives
go.nmc.org/80oer
(Open Education Database, 18 March 2013.) This
compilation provides institutions with open resources
for a range of academic activities, including publishing
content, building online courses, tutoring students, and
collaborating on projects.
Guide to the Use of Open Educational Resources in
K-12 and Postsecondary Education (PDF)
go.nmc.org/guideopen
(Sue Collins, Peter Levy, SIIA, March 2013.) Many
important questions about open educational
resources are answered, including inquiries on
quality, sustainability, total cost of development, and
implementation.
Open Resources: Transforming the Way Knowledge
Is Spread
go.nmc.org/openre
(D. D. Guttenplan, The New York Times, 18 March 2012.)
This article examines the state of open content in
education. The author sees open content as vital to
extending literacy and opportunity while cutting costs
for schools, families, and students worldwide.
“Opening” a New Kind of School: The Story of the
Open High School of Utah
go.nmc.org/openew
(DeLaina Tonks, Sarah Weston, et al., The International
Review of Research in Distance and Open Learning, March
2013.) TheOpen High School of Utah is a full-time online
high school whose courses are developed and taught in
Moodle. They have committed to an OER curriculum to
help reduce long-term costs and empower teachers in
building and teaching high quality material.
Out of Print: Reimagining the K-12 Textbook in a
Digital Age
go.nmc.org/oop
(Fletcher,G.,Schaffhauser,D,&Levin,D.StateEducational
Technology Directors Association, 2012.) The authors
of this report argue that traditional textbooks should
be replaced with high-quality online resources that
are up to date and easily accessible. Digital content is
more flexible than printed materials because it allows
teachers to benefit from a greater selection of open
educational resources and provides the possibility of
customized lesson plans.
Survey on Governments’ Open Educational
Resources Policies
go.nmc.org/surv
(Sarah Hoosen, Commonwealth of Learning and
UNESCO, June 2012) In a survey of 82 countries, data
was collected about the uptake and impact of OER in
both K-12 and higher education environments across
the world. The discussion looks at OER in Asia and
the Pacific, Arab States, Europe, North America, Latin
America, the Caribbean, and Africa.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
nown in industrial circles as rapid prototyping,
3D printing refers to technologies that
construct physical objects from threedimensional
(3D) digital content such as 3D
modeling software, computer-aided design
(CAD) tools, computer aided tomography (CAT), and
X-ray crystallography. A 3D printer builds a tangible
model or prototype from the electronic file, one layer
at a time, through an extrusion-like process using
plastics and other flexible materials, or an inkjet-like
process to spray a bonding agent onto a very thin layer
of fixable powder. The deposits created by the machine
can be applied very accurately to build an object from
the bottom up, layer by layer, with resolutions that,
even in the least expensive machines, are more than
sufficient to express a large amount of detail. The
process even accommodates moving parts within the
object. Using different materials and bonding agents,
color can be applied, and parts can be rendered in
plastic, resin, or metal. This technology is commonly
used in manufacturing to build prototypes of almost
any object (scaled to fit the printer, of course) that can
be conveyed in three dimensions.
Overview
3D printing is already pervasive in a number of fields,
including architecture, industrial design, jewelry design,
and civil engineering.The earliest known examples were
seeninthemid-1980s attheUniversityofTexas atAustin,
where selective laser sintering was developed, though
the equipment was cumbersome and expensive. The
term 3D printing itself was coined a decade later at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, when graduate
students were experimenting with unconventional
substances in inkjet printers. 3D printing appeared in
the very first NMC Horizon Report, published in 2004, and
since then, it has helped the U.S. Department of Defense
to inexpensively create aerospace parts, architects
create models of buildings, medical professionals
develop body parts for transplants, and much more.
In the past several years, there has been a lot of
experimentation in the consumer space — especially
within the Maker culture, a technologically-savvy,
do-it-yourself community dedicated to advancing
science, engineering, and other disciplines through the
exploration of 3D printing and robotics. Those involved
in the many Maker communities around the world
emphasize invention and prototyping. The MakerBot
(go.nmc.org/maker) is a 3D desktop printer that
allows users to build everything from toys to robots,
to household furniture and accessories, to models
of dinosaur skeletons. In 2012, MakerBot Industries
released the Replicator 2, with a higher resolution
compatibility and build volume. Relatively affordable
at under $2,500, the MakerBot has brought 3D printing
to the masses; the technology had previously only been
found in specialized labs.
The resurgence of 3D printing has also been aided by
online applications such as Thingiverse (go.nmc.org/
thingv), a repository of digital designs for physical
objects where users can download the digital design
information and create that object themselves, instead
of starting from scratch. The museum community in
particular has capitalized on this service, creating and
sharing replicas of artwork, sculptures, and fossils.
The PlayMaker school, a collaborative project between
GameDesk, New Roads, and the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation, has implemented a Maker space as part
of the in-school curriculum, with lessons tied to core
curriculum standards. Students design objects that can
be immediately replicated and prototyped through a
3D printer to create models that demonstrate physics
concepts (go.nmc.org/pla). As the technology becomes
28 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
3D Printing
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years
K
cheaper and more prevalent in schools and afterschool
programs, access will no longer be an obstacle for the
widespread adoption of 3D printing.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
One of the most significant aspects of 3D printing for
teaching and learning is that it enables more authentic
exploration of objects that may not be readily available
to schools. Although 3D printing is four to five years
away from widespread adoption in K-12 education, it
is easy to pinpoint the practical applications that will
take hold. In science and history classes, for example,
students can make and interact with models of fragile
objects such as fossils and artifacts. Through rapid
prototyping and production tools, chemistry students
can print out models of complex proteins and other
molecules, similar to what can be seen in 3D Molecular
Design’s Model Gallery. go.nmc.org/molec
While it has become easier for teachers and students to
work with these models, some of the most compelling
applications of 3D printing in K-12 come from schools
and programsthat involve students creating something
that is all their own. Sitessuch as 123D Catch allow users
to create their own 3D images from photographs they
have taken, and include an extensive how-to section.
The online gallery showcases the work of users of
all different ages (go.nmc.org/123dcatch). At Grand
Rapids High School in Michigan, one teacher is using
123D Catch for a summer school program on digital
holography. go.nmc.org/grhs3d
Higher education institutions are paving the way for 3D
printing in education, and are also launching initiatives
that make it more accessible to K-12 schools. A recent
partnership between the Commonwealth of Virginia,
University of Virginia, and the City of Charlottesville
sparked the formation of the Commonwealth
Engineering and Design Academy at Buford Middle
School, a project-based learning school that opens
in August 2013. With one 3D printer for every four
students, the school aims to develop a more active
curriculum. Testing is currently underway, specifically
for STEM subjects. go.nmc.org/ceda
Although the MakerBot and similar models have
made the technology more affordable, schools are
clamoring to determine how 3D printing fits in with
their curriculum. Education systems across the world
are revising their standards to integrate soft skills,
such as creativity, and 3D printing is becoming a more
popular answer. A new curriculum standard in New
Zealand, for example, will provide K-12 students with
the opportunity to design and print their own chess
pieces (go.nmc.org/nz3d). The exploration of the 3D
printing process from design to production, as well as
demonstrations and participatory access, will continue
to open up new possibilities for learning activities over
the next several years.
A sampling of applications of 3D printing across
disciplines includes the following:
> Astronomy. In an effort to engage inner city students
inSTEMrelatedfields,Minnesotanon-profitSTARBASE
has created an aerospace-themed curriculum where
students plan a mission to Mars. A highlight of the
project is the use of 3D printing technology to create
a working rocket that the studentslaunch on the final
day of the program: go.nmc.org/stra.
> Business. In early 2013, Darwin High School in
Australia initiated a project intended to expose
students to micro-business concepts through
product development and workflow analysis. Using
3D printers, students rapidly prototype ideas, explore
product design, and learn how to market their goods:
go.nmc.org/dar.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 29
As the technology becomes cheaper
and more prevalent in schools and
afterschool programs, access will
no longer be an obstacle for the
widespread adoption of 3D printing.
> Computer Science. Students at Glacier Peak High
School in Washington are eligible to receive college
credit for taking computer-aided design classes
featuring the incorporation of 3D printers for rapid
prototyping designs. The courses include modeling
and design, tolerance specification, documentation
drawing, and assembly modeling: go.nmc.org/
cadprint.
3D Printing in Practice
The following links provide examples of 3D printing in
use that have direct implications for K-12 settings.
3D Scanning and Printing at Concordia
go.nmc.org/con
At Concordia International School Shanghai,
students 3D-scanned an image of the asteroid Vesta
from the Dawn mission that NASA made freely
available. The students created their own miniature
model, allowing them to explore the asteroid, in a
hands-on fashion.
Fab Lab
go.nmc.org/fab
Fab Labs began as an outreach project from MIT’s
Center for Bits and Atoms to research and experiment
with digital fabrication. They have now materialized
into centers that spread across the globe, housing
technology such as 3D printers, laser cutters, and
programming toolsthatstudents can use in exploratory
learning environments.
STEM Academy Partnership Leverages 3D Printing
go.nmc.org/stem3d
The STEM Academy announced a partnership with 3D
printing company Stratasys to integrate 3D printers
into programming classes. 3D printing is a transferrable
professional skill that the students will be able to cite
when building their portfolios.
STEM Challenge Day at Clevedon School
go.nmc.org/cle
At Clevedon School in the UK, students took part in a
STEM challenge in which they designed, 3D-printed,
and tested mini“supersonic”carsthatthey subsequently
presented to a visiting engineer from 3D Systems.
Students Use 3D Printer To Build Future
go.nmc.org/lcs3d
At the Limestone County Career Technical Center in
Alabama, local high school students are using 3D
printers to design and build models they can hold and
explore. This gives them the ability to make revisions
right away and consult with other students and
educators about different engineering approaches.
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about 3D printing.
4D Printing: The New Frontier
go.nmc.org/4dp
(Oliver Marks, ZDNet, 14 March 2013.) Advances in nano
biotechnology are leading to new materials that can be
programmed to change their form over time. This could
lead to innovations including self-repairing pants made
from biological materials, vacuum-wrapped furniture
that self-assembles when exposed to the atmosphere,
and objects that assemble and disassemble depending
on temperature.
7 Educational Uses for 3D Printing
go.nmc.org/7ed3d
(Nancy Parker, Getting Smart, 14 November 2012.)
There is a vast array of uses for 3D printers in education,
including the development of body part models for
biology, 3D art, automobile parts, and historic artifacts.
10 Ways 3D Printers are Advancing Science
go.nmc.org/10ways
(Megan Treacy, Treehugger, 16 April 2013.) 3D printers
are advancing science in many ways, from helpingNASA
researchersstudying moon rocksto medical researchers
working with 3D printed prosthetics for ears and other
body parts. Specialized 3D printers are being used in
labs to produce a variety of skin and other tissues that
are literally “printed”onto an organic lattice.
How 3-D Printing Could Help The Blind “See”
Paintings
go.nmc.org/see
(David Zax, Fast Company, 7 April 2013.) Harvard
University students designed a system to create tactile
30 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
31
representations of paintings so that the visuallyimpaired
can better experience visual art. The program
uses a combination of computer-aided design software
and 3D printing technology to create a protruding
image, similar to a sculptural technique.
How Big Business is Stymying Makers’ High-Res,
Colorful Innovations
go.nmc.org/big
(Joseph Flaherty, Wired, 19 February 2013.) In the past
year, 3D printing has been a popular topic and become
a household term, due to the MakerBot releasing
affordable models. However, the author suggests
that the further development of the technology may
be stifled because of several patents that make it
impossible for start-ups and smaller entities to make
improvements.
Making It Real with 3D Printing
go.nmc.org/making
(Drew Nelson, InfoWorld, 11 December 2012.) This
article highlights the emergence of open source 3D
printers, which got their start in 2007, and have now
developed into less expensive, more efficient models as
usersshare, copy, and improve upon the model designs.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years
Some of the most compelling
applications of 3D printing in K-12
come from schools and programs
that involve students creating
something that is all their own.
irtual and remote laboratories reflect a
movement among education institutions
to make the equipment and elements of
a physical science laboratory more easily
available to learners from any location, via
the web. Virtual laboratories are web applications
that emulate the operation of real laboratories and
enable students to practice in a “safe” environment
before using real, physical components. Students
can typically access virtual labs 24/7, from
wherever they are, and run the same experiments
over and over again. Remote laboratories, on
the other hand, provide a virtual interface to a
real, physical laboratory. Institutions that do not
have access to high-caliber lab equipment can
run experiments and perform lab work online,
accessing the tools from a central location. Users
are able to manipulate the equipment and watch
the activities unfold via a webcam on a computer
or mobile device. Remote labs alleviate some
financial burden for institutions as they can forgo
purchasing specific equipment and use the remote
tools that are at their disposal.
Overview
Virtual and remote laboratories are not new
technologies, though they have become the subject
of many important discussions about improving STEM
education — especially in schools that cannot afford
expensive technology and equipment. While virtual
and remote labs are often spoken of together as they
both address the challenge of increasing access to
authentic science, they are different in significant
ways. Remote laboratories enable users to conduct
experiments and participate in activities via the
Internet using remotely controlled but real laboratory
equipment. Virtual laboratories are interactive online
environments for performing experiments with
simulated equipment. Both, however, offer the promise
of authentic laboratory experiences regardless of the
locale of the user.
In remote labs, the apparatuses can be monitored
throughout the experiment via webcam, microphone,
and othersensors.The equipment usually allowsforselfcleaning
when a user choosesto reset the lab. However,
because there are genuine tools at work, many remote
labs restrict access to one user or a group of users at a
time. Virtual laboratories generally enable any number
of users to conduct experiments simultaneously. In
both cases, students are still accountable for data
collection and analysis, though some virtual labs have
built-in tools to aid the lab write-up process.
Likewise, both approaches are designed to mimic the
same interactions users experience in a traditional
“hands-on” laboratory, where users manipulate
materials, measure liquids, press buttons, and the usual
activities. Online users are able to control these actions
through an interface. While the interactions are not
physical, the online environment still allows users to
see the consequences of their actions as they unfold,
whethersimulated in virtual labs or with real equipment
in remote labs. If the user does not get the results they
desire, there is flexibility to re-do the experiment as
many times as it takes.
One of the most effective remote laboratory systems
is iLab Central (go.nmc.org/ilab), featured in previous
editions of the NMC Horizon Report for its collaborative
applications and creative use of cloud computing.
Developed by Northwestern University in partnership
with MIT, iLab Central provides teachers and learners
in traditional and online high schools, museums, and
educational programs with opportunities to explore
science by accessing the actual equipment that
32 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Virtual and Remote Laboratories
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years
V
scientists use. In testimonials, participating students
cited more engagement while running experiments,
along with relief that they could perform lab activities
at their own pace.
Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or
Creative Inquiry
Virtual and remote laboratories reflect the current
trend in K-12 education toward more authentic online
education. Though the technology is four to five
years away from mainstream use in schools, there are
already many clear benefits of implementation. Virtual
and remote labs offer flexibility, as students can run
experiments as many times as they like — both in and
outside of school.
Because these labs are designed to allow easy repetition
of experiments, there is less pressure on students to
execute perfectly the first time. After learning what did
not work, they can easily make adjustments to their
processes and get different results. In the controlled
environments of virtual and remote laboratories,
students are safe, even if they make an error.
Most remote or virtual labs are currently either the result
of high profile, well-funded collaborations, large grants
from agencieslike theNational Science Foundation in the
U.S., or targeted efforts by not-for-profit organizations.
The American Chemical Society, for example, created a
set of virtual activitiesfor high schoolstudents. Resources
such as the Molecular Workbench enable students
to explore physics, chemistry, and biology through
hundreds ofsimulations. go.nmc.org/chems
As K-12 continues to embrace online learning over the
next several years, it is easy to imagine online schools
that rely on virtual and remote laboratories for much of
their STEM labs and activities.
A sampling of applications for virtual and remote
laboratories across disciplines includes the following:
> Chemistry. Dr. David Yaron, Associate Professor of
Chemistry at Carnegie Mellon University, developed
ChemCollective, a project in the National Science
Digital Library, to create flexible interactive learning
environments in which high school students can
approach chemistry more like practicing scientists:
go.nmc.org/chem.
> Marine Biology. In the Swedish town of Lysekil,
high school students used virtual tools to explore
the marine environment of the Gullmar Fjord on
the Swedish west coast, learning in the process how
scientific knowledge is created. The students used
a virtual ocean acidification laboratory to conduct
studies on acidification of the marine environment:
go.nmc.org/mar.
> Mathematics. High school students in four rural
North Carolina school districts are using Geometer’s
Sketchpad to understand how theorems are
developed. The software is accessed through
North Carolina State University’s virtual computing
lab, a cloud-based learning environment with an
interactive online community where teachers share
tips on the software as well as their projects: go.nmc.
org/nsf.
Virtual and Remote Laboratories in
Practice
The following links provide examples of virtual and
remote laboratories in use that have direct implications
for K-12 settings:
Drosophila Virtual Lab
go.nmc.org/flies
In this biology-based virtual lab, students engage in
experiments with digital fruit flies to determine which
specific traits are passed onto offspring. In addition to
the laboratory activities, the site hosts quizzes, reports,
and surveys.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 33
Virtual and remote labs are often
spoken of together as they both
address the challenge of increasing
access to authentic science.
LabShare
go.nmc.org/labs
Labshare, National Support for Laboratory Resource
Sharing, is an Australian government-funded project
to create a national network of shared remotely
accessible laboratories. Laboratory-based educational
experiments will be available to high school students
around the world.
LIGO E-Lab
go.nmc.org/ela
Mississippi high school students are required to cover
wavelengths of light and properties of energy in
their curriculum, and are using the same e-lab that
the University of Mississippi uses to allow students to
perform seismometer and interferometer experiments
online.
NYU-Poly Virtual Lab
go.nmc.org/vlab
The NYU-Poly Virtual Lab is a free online lab for high
schoolstudentswherethey canparticipateinanddesign
forensics projects. Students analyze and understand
how attackers take advantage of real systems and how
to implement cyber security measures.
Online Virtual Lab of Electricity
go.nmc.org/buzz
The Online Virtual Lab of Electricity is an open source
project that enables students to safely experiment with
alternating and direct current. By manipulating a virtual
connection board, users can measure voltage, intensity,
and frequencies.
Virtual Physics Lab
go.nmc.org/ketvl
Kentucky Educational Television launched the Virtual
Physics Lab, designed forthe introductory exploration of
concept development for physics. The virtual apparatus
simulates real life scientific laboratory equipment.
For Further Reading
The following articles and resources are recommended
for those who wish to learn more about virtual and
remote laboratories:
Can You Teach Lab Science Via Remote Labs?
go.nmc.org/teachlab
(Tony Bates, Online Learning and Distance Education
Resources, 22 April 2013.) The Colorado Community
College system has recently incorporated remote
laboratories for teaching introductory physics,
chemistry, and biology courses. Remote labs are
different from virtual labs because they involve
controlling equipment and conducting experiments inreal
time.
Flipping Lab Science with Remote Labs
go.nmc.org/flipsci
(Jim Vanides, Guide2DigitalLearning, accessed 19
March 2013.) The author explores the role of remote
science labs in the flipped classroom model. Students
have more time to explore the material and run more
iterations of an experiment.
It’s Lab Time — Connecting Schools to Universities’
Remote Laboratories (PDF)
go.nmc.org/pix
(Anne-Christin Tannhäuser, Claudio Dondi, Scienter,
2012.) Remote labs can give K-12 students the ability
to access technologies used in college and university
labs. The European Union has funded a project called
UniSchooLabS that seeks to bring online lab resources
to schools that lack in-house lab equipment by creating
toolkits that teach lessons via remote telescopes and
more.
A New Role for Avatars: Learning Languages
go.nmc.org/avatar
(Holly Korbey, MindShift, 3 May 2013.) Virtual labs are
not just for science. Students from England to Brazil
are using avatars in virtual language labs to enhance
their language learning skills. Virtual language labs
allow for students to practice in more realistic settings,
such as an airport or museum, and they provide a more
comfortable experience because students can select an
avatar to represent them.
Using an Online Remote Laboratory for Electrical
Experiments in Upper Secondary Education
go.nmc.org/usonre
34 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 35
(Lena Claesson and Lars Håkansson, International
Journal of Online Engineering, Vol. 8, 2012.) While remote
labs have been used in higher education for decades,
the researchers of this article were interested in the
application of remote labs in secondary schools in
Sweden. They found that students enjoyed working
in this manner because they conducted real time
experiments rather than simulations.
Because these labs are designed to
allow easy repetition of experiments,
there is less pressure on students to
execute perfectly the first time.
his report is part of a longitudinal research study
of emerging technologies that began in March
2002. Since that time, under the banner of the
HorizonProject,theNMCanditsresearchpartners
have held an ongoing series of conversations
and dialogs with its advisory boards — a group that
now numbers more than 800 technology professionals,
campustechnologists, faculty leadersfrom colleges and
universities, museum professionals, teachers and other
school professionals, and representatives of leading
corporations from more than 30 countries. For more
than a decade, these conversations have been mined to
provide the insights on emerging technology that are
published annually in the NMC Horizon Report series.
The NMC Horizon Project is currently in its 11th year,
dedicated to charting the landscape of emerging
technologiesfor teaching, learning, and creative inquiry
in education globally. In 2008, the NMC added to the
three main NMC Horizon Reports a new series of regional
and sector-based studies, called the NMC Technology
Outlooks, with the dual goals of understanding how
technology is being absorbed using a smaller lens, and
also noting the contrasts between technology use in
one area compared to another.
To date, the NMC has conducted studies of technology
uptake in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Iberoamerica,
Brazil, and Singapore, and has plans in place to expand
that research to Central Europe and South Africa. In
2012, the Technology Outlook series was expanded to
include sector analyses, and so far has documented
technology uptake across STEM+ education and
community, technical, and junior colleges.
This report, the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition, is
the fifth in its series focusing on pre-college education.
The flagship NMC Horizon Report, focused on higher
education, is translated into multiple languages every
year. Over all editions, the readership of the reports is
estimated at over two million worldwide, with readers
in over 150 countries.
The 55 members of this year’s advisory board were
purposely chosen to represent a broad spectrum of
the K-12 sector; key writers, thinkers, technologists,
and futurists from education, business, and
industry rounded out the group. They engaged in
a comprehensive review and analysis of research,
articles, papers, blogs, and interviews; discussed
existing applications, and brainstormed new ones; and
ultimately ranked the items on the list of candidate
technologies for their potential relevance to teaching,
learning, or creative inquiry. This work took place
entirely online and may be reviewed on the project wiki
at k12.wiki.nmc.org.
The effort to produce the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12
Edition began in February 2013, and concluded when the
reportwasreleased in June 2013, a period offour months.
The six technologies and applications that emerged at
the top of the final rankings — two per adoption horizon
— are detailed in the preceding chapters.
36 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
The NMC Horizon Project
T
The NMC Horizon Project is currently in
its 11th year, dedicated to charting the
landscape of emerging technologies
for teaching, learning, and creative
inquiry in education globally.
Each of those chapters includes detailed descriptions,
links to active demonstration projects, and a wide
array of additional resources related to the six profiled
technologies. Those profiles are the heart of the NMC
Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition, and will fuel the work
of the NMC Horizon Project throughout 2013. To share
your educational technology projects with the NMC to
potentially be featured in a future NMC Horizon Report,
the NMC Horizon Project Navigator database, or the
NMC Horizon EdTech Weekly App, visit go.nmc.org/
projects. For those wanting to know more about the
processes used to generate the NMC Horizon Report
series, many of which are ongoing and extend the work
in the reports, we refer you to the report’s final section
on the research methodology.
The NMC Horizon Project 37
The 55 members of this year’s
advisory board were purposely
chosen to represent a broad
spectrum of the K-12 sector; key
writers, thinkers, technologists, and
futurists from education, business,
and industry rounded out the group.
he process used to research and create the
NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition is very
much rooted in the methods used across all the
research conducted within the NMC Horizon
Project. All editions of the NMC Horizon Report
are produced using a carefully constructed processthat
is informed by both primary and secondary research.
Dozens of technologies, meaningful trends, and
critical challenges are examined for possible inclusion
in the report for each edition. Every report draws
on the considerable expertise of an internationally
renowned advisory board that first considers a broad
set of important emerging technologies, challenges,
and trends, and then examines each of them in
progressively more detail, reducing the set until the
final listing of technologies, trends, and challenges is
selected.
This process takes place online, where it is captured
and placed in the NMC Horizon Project wiki. The wiki is
intended to be a completely transparent window onto
the work ofthe project, and containsthe entire record of
the research for each of the various editions. The section
of the wiki used for the NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12
Edition can be found at k12.wiki.nmc.org.
The procedure for selecting the topics in the report
included a modified Delphi process now refined
over years of producing the NMC Horizon Report
series, and began with the assembly of the advisory
board. The advisory board represents a wide range
of backgrounds, nationalities, and interests, yet each
member brings a particularly relevant expertise. Over
the decade of the NMC Horizon Project research, more
than 800 internationally recognized practitioners and
experts have participated on project advisory boards;
in any given year, a third of advisory board members
are new, ensuring a flow of fresh perspectives each
year. Nominations to serve on the advisory board are
encouraged; see go.nmc.org/horizon-nominate.
Once the advisory board for a particular edition is
constituted, their work begins with a systematic review
of the literature — press clippings, reports, essays,
and other materials — that pertains to emerging
technology. Advisory board members are provided
with an extensive set of background materials when
the project begins, and are then asked to comment on
them, identify those that seem especially worthwhile,
and add to the set. The group discusses existing
applications of emerging technology and brainstorms
new ones. A key criterion for the inclusion of a topic
in this edition is its potential relevance to teaching,
learning, and creative inquiry in K-12. A carefully
selected set of RSS feeds from hundreds of relevant
publications ensures that background resources stay
current as the project progresses. They are used to
inform the thinking of the participants throughout the
process.
Following the review of the literature, the advisory
board engages in the central focus of the research —
the research questions that are at the core of the NMC
Horizon Project. These questions were designed to elicit
a comprehensive listing of interesting technologies,
challenges, and trends from the advisory board:
38 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
Methodology
T
Dozens of technologies, meaningful
trends, and critical challenges are
examined for possible inclusion in
the report for each edition.
1 Which of the key technologies catalogued in
the NMC Horizon Project Listing will be most
important to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry
within the next five years?
2 What key technologies are missing from our list?
Consider these related questions:
> What would you list among the established
technologies that some educational institutions
are using today that arguably all institutions
should be using broadly to support or enhance
teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
> What technologies that have a solid user base
in consumer, entertainment, or other industries
should educational institutions be actively
looking for ways to apply?
> What are the key emerging technologies you see
developing to the point that learning-focused
institutions should begin to take notice during
the next four to five years?
3 What trends do you expect to have a significant
impact on the ways in which learning-focused
institutions approach our core missions of teaching,
research, and service?
4 What do you see as the key challenges related
to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry that
learning-focused institutions will face during the
next five years?
One of the advisory board’s most important tasks is to
answer these questions as systematically and broadly
as possible, so as to ensure that the range of relevant
topics is considered. Once this work is done, a process
that moves quickly over just a few days, the advisory
board moves to a unique consensus-building process
based on an iterative Delphi-based methodology.
In the first step of this approach, the responses to the
research questions are systematically ranked and placed
into adoption horizons by each advisory board member
using a multi-vote system that allows members to
weight their selections. Each member is asked to also
identify the timeframe during which they feel the
technology would enter mainstream use — defined for
the purpose of the project as about 20% of institutions
adopting it within the period discussed. (This figure is
based on the research of Geoffrey A. Moore and refersto
the critical mass of adoptions needed for a technology
to have a chance of entering broad use.) These rankings
are compiled into a collective set of responses, and
inevitably, the ones around which there is the most
agreement are quickly apparent.
From the comprehensive list of technologies originally
considered for any report, the twelve that emerge at the
top of the initial ranking process — four per adoption
horizon — are further researched and expanded. Once
this “Short List” is identified, the group, working with
both NMC staff and practitioners in the field, begins
to explore the ways in which these twelve important
technologies might be used for teaching, learning,
and creative inquiry in K-12 education. A significant
amount of time is spent researching real and potential
applications for each of the areas that would be of
interest to practitioners.
For every edition, when that work is done, each of these
twelve “Short List” items is written up in the format of
the NMC Horizon Report. With the benefit of the full
picture of how the topic will look in the report, the
“short list”is then ranked yet again, this time in reverse.
The six technologies and applications that emerge are
those detailed in the NMC Horizon Report.
For more detail on the project methodology orto review
the instrumentation, the rankings, and the interim
products behind the report, visit k12.wiki.nmc.org.
Methodology 39
40 NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition
The NMC Horizon Project:
2013 K-12 Edition Advisory Board
Larry Johnson
Co-Principal Investigator
New Media Consortium
United States
Keith Krueger
Co-Principal Investigator
Consortium for School
Networking
United States
Leslie Conery
Co-Principal Investigator
ISTE
United States
Samantha Adams Becker
Lead Writer/Researcher
New Media Consortium
United States
Cristiana Mattos Assumpção
Colégio Bandeirantes
Brazil
Jeffrey Bajgot
Center for Educational Leadership
and Technology
United States
Roger Blamire
European Schoolnet
Belgium
Tony Brandenburg
Education Services Australia
Australia
Deirdre Butler
St. Patrick’s College, Dublin
Ireland
Horn Mun Cheah
National Institute of Education
Singapore
Kim Cofino
Yokohama International School
Japan
David Conover
John B. Connally High School
United States
Robert Craven
Computer Using Educators (CUE)
United States
David Deeds
Colegios Peterson
Mexico
Gavin Dykes
Cellcove Ltd
United Kingdom
Jelmer Evers
Universiteit Utrecht
The Netherlands
Derrel Fincher
Oklahoma State Department of
Education
United States
Sharyn Gabriel
Orange County Public Schools
United States
Bruno Gomes
SESI SENAI RJ
Brazil
Claus Gregersen
Herning Gymnasium
Denmark
Paul Hine
Hine Consultancy
United Kingdom
Daniel Ingvarson
National Schools Interoperability
Program
Australia
Shafika Isaacs
eLearn Africa
South Africa
Øystein Johannessen
Education Impact
Norway
Alice Keeler
Curriculum & Instruction:
California State University Fresno
United States
Michael Lambert
Concordia International School
of Shanghai
China
Diana Laurillard
Institute for Education
United Kingdom
Adrian Lim
Ngee Ann Secondary School
Singapore
Julie Lindsay
Flat Classroom Project
Australia
Holly Ludgate
New Media Consortium
United States
Marcia Mardis
Florida State University
United States
Daniel Mendes
American School of Dubai
United Arab Emirates
Jan Morrison
Washoe County School District
United States
Laura Motta
Board of Uruguay Teacher
Education & Plan Ciebal
Uruguay
Kathryn Moyle
Centre for School Leadership,
Learning and Development
Australia
Judy O’Connell
Charles Sturt University
Australia
Alice Owen
Irving ISD
United States
Helen Padgett
Arizona State University
United States
Kyle Peck
Pennsylvania State University
United States
Alex Podchaski
Oak Knoll School of the Holy Child
United States
Kecia Ray
Nashville Public Schools
United States
Brandt Redd
Independent Consultant
United States
Tom Ryan
eLearn Institute
United States
Kathy Schrock
Independent Consultant
United States
Jim Siegel
Fairfax County Public Schools
United States
Kari Stubbs
BrainPOP
United States
Jean Tower
Public Schools of Northborough &
Southborough
United States
Mike Trucano
World Bank
United States
Marta Turcsanyi-Szabo
Eotvos Lorand University
Hungary
Stephan Vincent-Lancrin
OECD
France
Steven Vosloo
UNESCO
France
Jack West
Sequoia Union High School District
United States
Guus Wijngaards
INHolland University
The Netherlands
Yong Zhao
University of Oregon
United States
Advisory board members are provided with an extensive set of background materials when the project
begins, and are then asked to comment on them, identify those that seem especially worthwhile, and add
to the set. A key criterion for the inclusion of a topic in this edition is its potential relevance to teaching,
learning, and creative inquiry in K-12.
NMC
T 512-445-4200
F 512-445-4205
E communications@nmc.org
nmc.org
New Media Consortium
6101 West Courtyard Drive
Building One, Suite 100
ISBN 978-0-9889140-1-8 Austin, Texas USA 78730
The NMC Horizon Report.
Now available weekly.
HZ
Introducing the NMC Horizon EdTech Weekly App for tablets and smartphones. Get weekly updates of the hottest
news in the EdTech world. Search our ever-expanding database of projects, reports, and news about innovations in
teaching and learning. Download and share all NMC Horizon Reports. From anywhere. Find us in the iTunes
Store at go.nmc.org/ios and in Google Play at go.nmc.org/android.
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