a. What were the common material pre-conditions that made this leap possible?
b. What did these earliest societies contribute to human civilization?
c. Although these societies were all built on a common infrastructure, they still
managed to create very distinctive cultures and different ways of life. How were the
Sumerian city-states different from both Egypt and China (the Shang Dynasty) in the
way in which they tied together religion, writing system, and forms of government?