original Topic DOES NOT NEED A RESPONSE, only need to reply to (2) peers respons

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original Topic DOES NOT NEED A RESPONSE, only need to reply to (2) peers response. Each reply should have a minimum of 50 words and have 1 reference in APA format. Original Topic: You work for a pharmaceutical company where you are assigned the task of creating new drug therapies to treat thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism (high levels of T3 and T4) and hypothyroidism (low levels of T3 and T4). Your team has designed a few drugs, and your job is to identify which drug(s) would be successful in treating thyroid disorders based on your knowledge of thyroid hormone synthesis. Below is the list of drugs your team designed (all of these are hypothetical drugs).
[1] Explain the pathway and negative feedback loop involved in thyroid hormone production beginning with the hypothalamus.
[2] What factors can cause hyperthyroidism? What factors can cause hypothyroidism.
[3] Identify the drug(s) that would be successful in treating hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Explain why and how they would be successful.
Peroxidine: A drug that inhibits thyroid peroxidase from functioning
Cimigine: A drug that inhibits potassium/iodine cotransporter
Iodimine: A drug that inhibits iodinase from functioning
Aldosine: A drug that inhibits production of angiotensinogen from the liver
Aldoramine: A drug that inhibits sodium/iodine cotransporter
Thyromine: A drug that stimulates thyroglobulin production
Only reply to (2) peers BELOW
Peer (1) Kerri
Hi professor and class,
Explain the pathway and negative feedback loop involved in thyroid hormone production beginning with the hypothalamus.
There are two pathways involved in thyroid hormone production depending on whether or not the metabolic rate, T3 and T4 concentration in the blood is high or low. If the concentration in the blood is low the hypothalamus will release a hormone called TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone). This hormone is produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and releases TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. This will then trigger the release of T3 and T4 by thyroid follicle cells. The effect of the T3 and T4 release will increase basal metabolic rate of body cells and a rise in body temperature. The negative feedback loop happens here because the now elevated T3 and T4 will inhibit more release of TRH and TSH and the hypothalamus will then stop it. The second pathway would be if the concentration in your blood is too high. If it is too high, the hypothalamus will stop the release of TRH and the anterior pituitary will stop the release of TSH. TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) regulates the T3 and T4 release from the thyroid gland (Lumen)
What factors can cause hyperthyroidism? What factors can cause hypothyroidism?
Hyperthyroidism is defined as having an overactive thyroid. This is when your thyroid gland produces TOO MUCH thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can “accelerate your body’s metabolism causing unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat.” (MayoClinic 2018) The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder known as Graves’ Disease. This autoimmune disorder is genetic and runs in families, mostly known to females. The few other cause of hyperthyroidism is excess iodine, thyroiditis, tumors in reproductive organs, benign tumors in thyroid or pituitary, or large amounts of tetraiodothyronine taken in dietary supplements. Hypothyroidism is defined actually as the opposite of hyperthyroidism. It is when you have an underactive thyroid, meaning your thyroid does not produce enough of the crucial hormones. The cause of hypothyroidism is mainly from the chemical balance of hormones in your body being thrown off. This can be from autoimmune diseases, hyperthyroidism treatments, radiation therapy, thyroid surgery and medications. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune disease called Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Your immune system basically produces antibodies to attack your own tissues, including your thyroid gland.
Identify the drug(s) that would be successful in treating hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Explain why and how they would be successful.
The drugs that would be the most successful in treating hyperthyroidism would be Peroxidine, Cimigine, Iodimine, and Aldoramine. Since it is stated that Peroxidine inhibits the thyroid enzyme peroxidase from functioning, the amount of thyroid hormone that is produced will decrease. The drugs Cimigine, Iodimine, and Aldoramine all inhibit the iodine cotransporter. One of the main chemicals needed to produce thyroid hormone is Iodine, so without it the amount of thyroid hormone will be decreased as well. For hypothyroidism, the drug Thyromine can be extremely successful treating it. Thyroglobulin is the main thing for thyroid hormone synthesis. With an increase of thyroglobulin, more thyroid hormone can actually be produced since it is key in the thyroid hormone.
References:
1. Silverthorn, D.U. (2018). Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 8th ed. Pearson.
2. Lumen Learning. (unknown). The Thyroid Gland. Accessed on July 5th, 2021 from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-ap2/chapter/the-thyroid-gland/ (Links to an external site.)
3. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Hyperthyroidism. Accessed on July 5th 2021 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hyperthyroidism/symptoms-causes/syc-20373659 (Links to an external site.)
4. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Hypothyroidism. Accessed on July 5th 2021 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/symptoms-causes/syc-20350284
Peer (2) Yaimary
Hello Professor and Class,
Feedback loops is the heart of most physiologic regulatory mechanisms, which are prevalent in the endocrine system. The occurrence of positive feedback is common, but it is much common than negative input. When the result of a system suppresses the system’s intakes, this is known as negative feedback. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis relies heavily on feedback loops to modulate hormone output. The regulation of thyroid hormone production is a good illustration of a negative feedback circuit. Thyroid glands produce and emit T4 and T3, which impact the rate of food conversion throughout the body’s system. TRH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), the hormone that releases the thyroid, is secreted by neurons found in the hypothalamus, which induces cells in the pituitary to produce TSH (Chiamolera, & Wondisford, 2009). The thyroid-stimulating hormone attaches to receptors to the epithelial cells for the thyroid gland, causing thyroid hormones to be synthesized and secreted, impacting almost all cells for the body. Neurons that secret TRH within the hypothalamus are suppressed and stop emitting TRH when thyroid hormone levels in the blood go beyond a particular threshold.
The most prevalent causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves’ disease, thyroiditis, and multinodular goiter or the toxic nodular. Graves’ illness is caused by antibodies produced by the immune system that attach to thyroid cells, causing them to produce excess thyroid hormone. Some thyroid nodules or lumps that generate too much thyroid hormone are known as multinodular goiter or the toxic nodular (Taylor et al., 2018). These nodules or lumps are known as hot nodules since they receive radioiodine in radioactive iodine uptake. Postpartum thyroiditis is a popular type of thyroiditis that arises after a woman delivers. Some women have transitory hyperthyroidism accompanied by hypothyroidism, whereas others have only hypothyroidism or only hyperthyroidism.
The unbalanced processes in the system of the body are the first triggers of hypothyroidism. The equilibrium of chemical processes in the body can be disturbed if the thyroid does not generate sufficient hormones. The possible causes include radiation therapy, hyperthyroidism therapies, thyroid surgery autoimmune disease, and certain drugs (Taylor et al., 2018). The thyroid refers to a tiny gland located immediately underneath Adam’s apple found at the bottom of the neck front. Thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) significantly influence health, affecting every element of an individual’s metabolism. The hormones also have an impact on how crucial functions like the heart rate and body temperature.
The medications that would be used to treat hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism successfully include peroxidine, iodimine, aldoramine, and thyroxine. Thyroid peroxidase is inhibited by peroxidine. The thyroid peroxidase enzyme converts iodide ions to iodine and integrates them to form thyroglobulin’s tyrosine particles (Ruf & Carayon, 2006). Restriction of the enzyme will block these crucial phases in the synthesis of thyroid hormone, perhaps assisting in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Iodine is a regulator of iodinase, a hypothesized enzyme that aids in the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin. Its suppression reduces the synthesis of thyroid hormone, making it potentially effective in the therapy of hyperthyroidism. Aldoramine is a sodium iodide co-transporter modulator that prevents iodide ions from entering the thyroid gland’s functional cells. Inhibition reduces the amount of iodine available for the synthesis of the thyroid hormone, which may be helpful in the therapy of hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, thyroxine stimulates the development of thyroglobulin and may boost thyroid hormone synthesis. This could help with hypothyroidism therapy.
References
Chiamolera, M. I., & Wondisford, F. E. (2009). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and the thyroid hormone feedback mechanism. Endocrinology, 150(3), 1091-1096.
Ruf, J., & Carayon, P. (2006). Structural and functional aspects of thyroid peroxidase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 445(2), 269-277.
Taylor, P. N., Albrecht, D., Scholz, A., Gutierrez-Buey, G., Lazarus, J. H., Dayan, C. M., & Okosieme, O. E. (2018). Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 14(5), 301-316.

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