Purpose of Paper III: Study Two Literature Review

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Instructions for Paper III: Study Two Literature Review (Worth 35 Points)
Ryan J. Winter
Florida International University


 
Purpose of Paper III: Study Two Literature Review
1). Psychological Purpose
Paper III is intended to help you take your original Terror Management Theory study one step further by letting you predict how a second independent variable of your lab’s choosing impacts participants. In this replication with extension study, you have a greater role in a). choosing which articles to include in your follow-up literature review as well as b). identifying how this new variable influences your hypotheses. The bulk of your points in Paper III will come from a new paper “literature review”, but like journal articles you have probably read before this second literature review comes between the discussion from study one and before the methods for study two. That is, your Paper III will include your original literature review from study one (revised based on feedback from Paper I), your study one methods, results, and discussion (revised based on feedback from Paper II), and a new literature review that both focuses on the results of study one but adds in new information and references for study two.
In other words, Paper III includes:
1). Your original title page (though feel free to change the title)
2). Your revised study one literature review (ending in the study one hypotheses).
3). Your revised study one methods section.
4). Your revised study one results section.
5). Your revised study one discussion section.
6). Your new study two literature review (ending in the study two hypotheses).
7). References for all citations in the paper (minimum 10 references required)
8). Your appendices from study one
 
The largest number of Paper III points are provided for your new study two literature review. Unlike your study one literature review, your study two literature review will essentially pick up after study one. Think of it as a “sequel” of sorts. It builds on and extends study one’s Terror Management Theory manipulation, using some of the same independent variable (Mortality Salience versus Dental Pain) and similar dependent variables (e.g. Number of word-fragments completed with death-related words) but altering or extending them into a new study design. The good news here is that you can refer to study one as you write your study two literature review. In fact, that is something I encourage. You can also refer back to your study one literature review sources.
The bulk of this study two literature review concerns a second independent variable that you and your lab will manipulate during the second part of the semester. You will need to find five references (minimum) for this second independent variable, hopefully finding sources that show how you can build a bridge between the two studies. In other words, in Paper III you will answer the following question: “Given our findings in study one, how will the presence of a second independent variable impact participant decisions?”
You should end your literature review by noting your specific hypotheses for the study. Here, you will address both main effects (outcomes associated with each independent variable alone) and interactions (the combined impact of your independent variables).
2). APA Formatting Purpose
The second purpose of Paper III: Literature Review is to once again teach you proper American Psychological Association (APA) formatting. In the pages below, I will tell you how to format your paper using APA style. There are a lot of very specific requirements in APA papers, so pay attention to the instructions below as well as Chapter 14 in your book!
3). Writing Purpose
Finally, this paper is intended to help you refine your writing. My hope is that you will use feedback from Paper I and Paper II to improve your grammar, spelling, and content in Paper III. At the end of the semester, you will actually use Paper III as the opening section for your final course paper, so doing a good writing job Paper III will be very beneficial as you revise your papers for Paper V. Many students use Paper V as their writing sample for graduate programs, so make sure you write clearly and precisely for an educated reader!
 
Instructions for Paper III: Study Two Literature Review (Worth 35 Points)
This paper will cover both study one (including the literature review, methods section, results section, and brief discussion from that study) and the introduction literature review to study two. This paper essentially tells the literature oriented story of your semester long project thus far. Your main job is to justify your study two predictions, and you do that by both showing how study one influenced your choice of variables in study two as well as citing prior research that supports your second independent variable in study two. At the end of the study two literature review section, you will provide your own study predictions.
The good news is that we are continuing with our topic of the Terror Management Theory study. You wrote a lot on that already, so here you simply add to it, noting in a second “literature review) section how a second independent variable might interact with the Mortality Salience manipulation from study one. Here are the components to keep in mind. By now, a lot of this should be familiar to you, so you’ll see a lot of overlap with the instructions and checklists from Paper I and Paper II.

  1. Title Page: I expect the following format (1 point):
    1. This title page is a lot like the title page on your Papers I and II. See my “Title” page above as an example or reuse your title page from prior papers (though you may need to modify your title given your new IVs in this study).
    2. You must have a header and page numbers on each page.
      1. If you don’t know how to insert headers, ask your instructor or watch this very helpful video! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY.
      2. The header goes at the top of the paper and it is left justified.
        1. Use “Insert Headers” or click on the top of the page to open the header. Make sure to select the “Different first page” option so that your title page header will differ from subsequent pages
        2. The R in Running head is capitalized but the h is lower case, followed by a colon and a short title (in ALL CAPS). This short running head title can be the same one as the rest of your paper or it can differ – the choice is yours, but it should be no more than 50 characters including spaces and punctuation
        3. Insert a page number as well. While the header is flush left, the page number is flush right.
  • Want an example header? Look at the title page of these instructions! You can use other titles depending on your own preferences (e.g. TERROR MANAGEMENT THEORY; MORTALITY SALIENCE; DEATH AND PROGRESS; PRIMING DEATH; etc.).
  1. Your Title should be midway up the page, with your name (First Last) and the name of your institution (FIU) beneath the title. For this class, only your own name will go on this paper. Double space everything!
    1. You can also refer to Chapter 14 in your textbook
  2. Abstract, Graphs, and Tables? These are optional – Ask your lab instructor about them:
    1. You DO NOT need an abstract for Paper III: Study Two Literature Review and you DO NOT need a table or figure. You can include them if you want, but they will not be graded and they will not factor into the length of the paper. Check with your lab instructor to see if they prefer to see abstracts and tables.
  3. Literature Review Study One (3 points)
    1. Make sure to revise the study one literature review from Paper I based on feedback to that paper. The Paper I instructions still apply for that second in Paper II, so reread those instructions if you need a reminder on the requirements for your study one literature review.
    2. For Paper III, you will need ten references total. You already have five for the study one literature review, so feel free to keep those same references. You can also add a few or take away a few from the study one literature review and make-up the difference in the study two literature review section (#7 below). That is, you can have seven references for study one and three for study two, or six for study one and four for study two, etc. My advice – keep your five references from study one and include five additional references for the study two literature review.
    3. Just remember to revise, revise, revise your study one lit review. If we made recommendations for improvement and you don’t change a word, you’ll lose all three points in this section!
  4. Methods Study One (3 points)
    1. Revise your methods from study one for this section based on feedback we gave you in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for methods still apply for this section.
    2. Again, revise, revise, revise or risk losing all points in this section
  5. Results Study One (3 points)
    1. Revise your results from study one for this section based on feedback we gave you in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for the results still apply for this section.
    2. Do I need to mention revise?
  6. Discussion Study One (1 point)
    1. Revise your discussion from study one for this section based on feedback we gave you in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for the discussion still apply for this section.
    2. One word – revise!
  7. Literature Review Study Two (10 points)
    1. APA formatting for the first page of your literature review
      1. Your study two literature review starts right after the discussion for study one. There is no page break, so have it come right after the discussion on the very next line.
    2. APA formatted citations for the literature review
      1. Between the literature review for study one and the literature review for study two, you have to have at least ten references combined. If you have five references in the study one lit review, you need five more here. If you have seven for study one, you need three here. In total, at least eight of these ten references must be based on empirical research reports (that is, each of these eight cited articles should have a literature review, a methods section, a results section, a conclusion/discussion, and references). The remaining two sources can also be primary sources, but you may also use secondary sources (books, law reviews, newspaper articles, etc.). Of course I would recommend sticking with all primary sources, but the choice is yours for the other two citations. Note: Internet blogs and Wikipedia are not acceptable as secondary sources. Here is a bit more to note:
        1. As in Paper I, I am not setting a maximum on the number of citations you can use, but between studies one and two you need at minimum ten of them! These may overlap among students, so it is okay to read the same articles as some of your classmates. You can use all of the articles posted on blackboard for Paper I if you want, but note that you will need to find some new references as well (especially ones that focus on your second independent variable).
          1. Referring to your first study does not count as a reference.
        2. Proper citations must be made in the paper – give credit where it is due, and don’t make claims that cannot be validated! If it sounds like a fact, then you must provide a citation to support that fact
        3. DO NOT plagiarize. You will turn this in on blackboard, and we can check for plagiarism via turn-it-in. Paraphrasing is okay, but you must still cite the original author even if you do not use his or her words verbatim. If you rewrite what they say, it is still them that had the original idea, and they deserve credit for it
        4. If you directly quote a source, make sure to provide a page number for where you found that quote. However, I prefer paraphrasing to direct quotes. I allow three quotes total for the whole paper (including the two that I allowed in Paper I). If you quote more than three times you will lose one point for each additional quote.
      2. Content-based requirements for your study two literature review
        1. Your study two literature review should use your study one results and prior research studies as a jumping off point, once again starting with a broad theme and then narrowing it down – think about the hourglass example your instructors have given you. Now imagine that you have a second hourglass right below the original one. You can start broadly again with information about the new study independent variable, and then once again narrow down as you near your hypotheses for study two.
        2. Think about your study two literature review this way: You are writing a sequel to study one, so your new story picks up where that story left off.
          1. I want you to pay close attention to your own brief discussion from study one (Paper II discussion). You drew some conclusions there, but now is your chance to build on those conclusions. At the beginning of your new study two story, your audience knows some of the story from study one, so there is no need to rewrite what you already presented. Rather, you need to set the stage for the new sequel storyline. Introduce your new “character”, or your new independent variable. Talk about this somewhat in isolation (what does research say about this variable on its own). Once you define and clarify what this new variable is and how it has been used in prior research, start to show how it connects to your own study one.
            1. For example, let’s say your new independent variable is “the effect of warnings on behavior”, with warning versus no warning as the two levels of the new IV. You would talk about research on warnings and how it impacts people. THEN you talk about how warning about Terror Management Theory might impact people. So, step one is to introduce the new concept while step two is to show how the new concept fits in with your new study.
          2. At the end of the story, start to lead the reader to the big cliffhanger (your study two hypothesis). By now you have introduced the characters as well as the plot, but then you want to build some anticipation in your reader – you want them to wonder what comes next! The last part of the literature review brings the reader to your study two hypotheses, or that potential twist ending to your story. That is, “Given what we saw in the literature, what happens if we do XYZ?” Thus you build your study to your hypotheses and end on another cliffhanger. The next chapter (Paper IV Methods, Results, and Discussion) focuses on the study that you actually did! In other words, at the end of your study two literature review you should …
            1. give a general overview of your research question
            2. state your specific predictions / hypotheses given the studies you talked about in the literature review. This should look at both main effects and interactions, so you’ll need to address each IV on its own (main effect for belief perseverance and main effect for your second IV) and the interaction of the two IVs as they work together.
          3. The literature review for study two must have a minimum of two (2) full pages of text and a maximum of five (5) pages. This time, I’ll let you include the hypotheses within that minimum 2 pages (though it would be very tight to get all of that info in there in such a short lit review section).
        3. Citations: I expect the following format (4 points)
          1. All in text citations must be correct (correct APA formatting, correct dates, if directly quoted must have page numbers, and uses et al. and & and correctly)
        4. References: I expect the following format (5 points):
          1. The References section starts on its own page, with the word References centered. Use proper APA format in this section or you will lose points.
          2. All ten references that you cited in the literature review must be in this section (there should be more than ten references here if you cited more than ten articles). However, at least eight must come from empirical articles
          3. For references, make sure you:
            1. use alphabetical ordering (start with the last name of the first author)
            2. use the authors’ last names but only the initials of their first/middle name
  • give the date in parentheses – e.g. (2007).
  1. italicize the name of the journal article
  2. give the volume number, also in italics
  3. give the page numbers (not italicized) for articles
  • provide the doi (digital object identifier) if present (not italicized)
  1. Appendices: I expect the following format (1 point)
    1. Copy and paste from Paper II. This should be an easy point! Just make sure the appendices go AFTER the references page
      1. Appendix A: Include your tables for age, gender, and ethnicity.
      2. Appendix B: Include your tables for your chi square and the crosstabs
  • Appendix C: Include your tables for your first DV
  1. Appendix D: Include your tables for you second DV
  1. Overall writing quality (4 points)
    1. Make sure you check your paper for proper spelling and grammar. The FIU writing center is available if you want someone to look over your paper (an extra eye is always good!) and give you advice. I highly recommend them, as writing quality will become even more important on future papers.

 
Other Guidelines for Paper III: Literature Review
 

  • 1). Pay attention to the page length requirements – 1 page for the title page, 2-5 pages for the study one lit review, no minimum page lengths for the study one methods, results, and discussion sections, 2-5 pages for the study two literature review, and at least 1 page for the references page. If you are under the minimum, we will deduct points. If you go over the maximum, we are a little more flexible (up to a half page or so), but we want you to try to keep it to the maximum page.
  • 2). Page size is 8 1/2 X 11” with all 4 margins set at 1”. You must use a 12-point font with Times New Roman font. EVERYTHING in the paper (including references) is double spaced
  • 3). When summarizing articles for your lit review and doing so in your own words, make sure you still cite the original source. Always use proper referencing procedures, which means that:
    • If you are inserting a direct quote from any source, it must be enclosed in quotations and followed by a parenthetical reference to the source. “Let’s say I am directly quoting this current sentence and the next. I would then cite it with the author name, date of publication, and the page number for the direct quote” (Winter, 2013, p . 5).
      1. Note: We will deduct points if you quote more than three times in the paper, so keep quotes to a minimum. Paraphrase instead, but make sure you still give the original author credit for the material by citing it or using the author’s name (“In this article, Smith noted that …” or “In this article, the authors noted that…”)
  • 4). PLEASE use a spell checker to avoid unnecessary errors. Proofread everything you write. I actually recommend reading some sentences aloud to see if they flow well, or getting family or friends to read your work. Using Pearson Writer is also required

 
 
The above information is required for your paper, but I wanted to provide a few tips about writing your study two literature review as well. Hopefully this will give you some good directions:

  • First, remember that you need ten references total, eight of which MUST be peer-reviewed

 

  • Second, I don’t expect a lengthy discussion for each and every article that you cite for either study one or study two. You might spend a page on one study and a sentence or two on another. The amount of time you spend describing an article you read should be proportional to how important it is in helping you defend your hypotheses. If you do a near replication of a prior study, then I would expect you to spend more time discussing that prior research since it has a big impact on your own study. If an article you read simply supports a global idea that ties into your study but has very different methods (like “frustrated people get mad!”), you can easily mention it in a sentence or two without delving into a lot of detail. Tell a good story in your literature review, but only go into detail about plot elements that have a direct bearing on your study!

 

  • Third, like Paper I, Paper III is all about supporting your study two hypotheses. Know what your hypotheses are before you write the paper, as it will help you determine how much time to spend on each article you are citing.

 

  • Fourth, make sure to proofread, proofread, proofread! Use the Pearson Writer for help, but note that their suggestions are just that – suggestions. It is up to you to make sure the flow of the paper is easy to understand. Good luck!

 

  • You “checklist” for Paper III is on the next page

 
 
Checklist – Paper III: Study Two Literature Review
Use the check sheet below to make sure your paper is the best it can be! Make sure you answer “Yes” to all questions before submitting your paper! Some sections duplicate checklists from prior papers while those in purple focus on new Study Two Literature Review elements.

General Paper Format (This section is identical to the Papers I and II Checklists)
Yes No  
    1.      Is everything in your paper (including headers, the main body of your mini-literature review, and your references) in 12 point Times New Roman font?
    2.      Is everything in your paper double spaced, including references (here I mean the spacing above and below each line, not the spaces following a period)?
    3.      Do you have one inch margins on all sides of the paper (one inch from the top of the page, one inch from the bottom, and one inch from each side)
    4.      Are the first lines of all paragraphs indented roughly ½ inch?
    5.      Are your paragraphs aligned left? (That is, text should be flush left, with lines lining up on the left of the page, but text should NOT line up on the right side of the page – it should look ragged)
    6.      Do you need help figuring out how to configure a word document in APA format (inserting headers, page numbers, proper indents, etc.)? If YES, I highly recommend watching this video which walks you through setting up an APA formatted paper! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY
 
Title page (This section is identical to the Papers I and II Checklists)
Yes No Header
    1.      Do you have the phrase “Running head” in your header (with a lower case h)?
    2.      Is the rest of your Running head title in ALL CAPS?
    3.      Is your Running head in 12 point Times New Roman font?
    4.      Do you have a page number (1) that is flush right (also in 12 point Times New Roman font)?
  Title / Name / Institution
    1.      Is your title 12 words or less (as recommended by the APA)?
    2.      Do all title words with four letters or more start with a capital letter?
    3.      Are your name and institution correct?
    4.     Are your title, name, and institution elements centered and in 12 point Times New Roman font?
 
Literature Review Study One (This section is nearly identical to Paper I)
Yes No Title for the literature review
    1.      Do you have the identical title you used on the title page rewritten at the top of your literature review?
    2.      Is this title centered?
    3.      Does your literature review start on page 2?
    Main body of the literature review
    1.      Does your literature review start broadly, giving a brief overview of the study one to come?
    2.      Does your literature review start to narrow down toward your hypotheses?
    3.      Do your paragraphs transition from one to the next? (That is, avoid simply listing studies you read. Tie them together. How does Study A in paragraph A relate to Study B in paragraph B?)
    4.      Does your paper end in your study one hypotheses? (More specifically, you should have a hypothesis for your main dependent variables).
  Citations for the literature review
    1.      Did you cite a minimum of 5 references (all peer-reviewed resources)? Note that you can give a lot of detail for some references but only a sentence or two for others. How much detail you go into depends on how important the article is in helping your support your hypotheses.
    1.a  If NO, do your citations between the study one and study two literature reviews add up to ten or more references?
    2.      Are your citations in APA format (That is, ONLY the last name of the author(s) and date of publication)? Note that you will NOT include first names, initials, or the title of the article the authors wrote when citing. That information belongs in the references pages only
    3.      If you quoted, did you provide a page number for the direct quote?
    4.      If you paraphrased in any way, did you cite the source of that information?
 
Methods Section Study One (This section is identical to Paper II – Methods Study One)
Yes No Title for the methods section
    1.      Is the word “Methods” centered and in bold? (Note: No page break needed)
Yes No Participants
    1.      Do you have the word “Participants” flush left and in bold, right below the word “Methods”?
    2.      Did you list out your demographic characteristics, including gender, age, and ethnicity / race?
    3.      Did you provide the descriptive statistics for (means and standard deviations) for age and italicize the letters M and SD?
    4.      Did you provide frequencies for gender and ethnicity/race and italicize the N?
    5.      Did you use the brand new participant set from study two and NOT the set from study one?
  Materials and Procedure
    1.      Did you mention informed consent?
    2.      Did you thoroughly describe your two independent variable in enough depth and detail that another researcher could duplicate your materials?
    3.      Did you give your IVs names that matches up with the name you refer to in the results section?
    4.      Did you describe all of your most relevant dependent variables, noting the scales you used (e.g. “Yes / No”, “A scale ranging from 1 (not at all likely) to 9 (very likely))” for EACH of your DVs?
    5.      Did you fully describe what participants went through in the study, noting the order in which they received study materials (e.g. first informed consent, then IVs, DVs, and debriefing)?
 
Results Section Study One (This section is identical to Paper II – Results Study One)
Yes No Results
    1.      Do you have the word “Results” centered and in bold, immediately following the methods section?
    2.      Did you analyze at least three different dependent variables, including one chi square and at least one ANOVA?
    3.      Did you mention all of the IVs and the DV by name when talking about your analysis?
    4.      Did you include means and standard deviations within parentheses for each level of your independent variable?
    5.      If your ANOVA was significant, did you include post hoc tests?
    6.      Did you italicize the letters F, t, p, M, SD, and X2 (where appropriate)?
 
Discussion Section Study One (This section is identical to Paper II – Discussion Study One)
Yes No  
    1.      Do you have the word “Discussion” centered and in bold, immediately following the results section?
    2.      Did you remind your reader of your hypothesis?
    3.      Did you mention whether you supported or did not support your hypothesis?
 
Literature Review Study Two (This section is completely new)
Yes No Title for the literature review
    1.      Do you have some title that denotes the start of study two (e.g. something as simple as “Study Two”)?
    2.      Is this title centered?
    3.      Does your literature review start immediately after the study one discussion (there should be no page break unless it occurs naturally)
  Main body of the literature review
    1.      Does your new literature review start broadly with your second IV, giving a brief overview of what it entails?
    2.      Does your literature review start to narrow down toward your study two hypotheses?
    3.      Do your paragraphs transition from one to the next? (That is, avoid simply listing studies you read. Tie them together. How does Study A in paragraph A relate to Study B in paragraph B?)
    4.      Do you tie in your new IV with your original study one IV, showing how they might interact?
    5.      Does your paper end in your study two hypotheses? (More specifically, you should have a hypothesis for your main dependent variables).
  Citations for the literature review
    1.      Did you cite an additional 5 references (three of which MUST be peer-reviewed resources)? Note that you can give a lot of detail for some references but only a sentence or two for others. How much detail you go into depends on how important the article is in helping your support your hypotheses.
    1.a  If NO, do your citations between the study one and study two literature reviews add up to ten or more references? If yes, you are good here!
    2.      Are your citations in APA format (That is, ONLY the last name of the author(s) and date of publication)? Note that you will NOT include first names, initials, or the title of the article the authors wrote when citing. That information belongs in the references pages only
    3.      If you quoted, did you provide a page number for the direct quote?
    4.      If you paraphrased in any way, did you cite the source of that information?

 

References Page  (This section is similar to Paper I, but with 10 references)
Yes No Title for the references page
    1.      Do references start on their own page?
    2.      Is the word “References” centered?
  References – Make sure these are in APA format!
    1.      Are references listed in alphabetical order (starting with the last name of the first author listed) for all 10 articles you referenced?
    2.      Are all citations from the literature review referenced?
    3.      Is the first line of the reference flush left while subsequent lines are indented (Note: Use the ruler function for this. DO NOT simply tab)?
    4.      Did you use the “&” symbol when listing more than one author name?
    5.      Did you include the date of publication
    6.      For article references, is the article title (which is not italicized) with only the first word and proper names starting with a capital letter?
    7.      For article references, is the name of the journal present with all major words starting with a capital letter (and this journal title is italicized)?
    8.      For article references, is the volume number italicized
    9.      For article references, are the page numbers present (not italicized)
    10.  For article references, is the DOI present

 

Appendix Section – Study One (Similar to Paper II)
Yes No  
    1.      Do you have the word “Appendix” centered on each Appendix page, followed by a description of the appendix content, immediately following the results section?
    2.      In Appendix A (Demographics), do you have SPSS tables for gender, ethnicity, and age? (Note: Age might be in a general “statistics” table, but you should have specific frequency tables for both gender and ethnicity)
    3.      In Appendix B (Chi Square), do you have the crosstabs table (with percentages) plus the chi square test (with Pearson)?
    4.      In Appendix C (ANOVA), do you have the descriptives table, the ANOVA table, and the post hoc table for your first dependent variable?
    5.      In Appendix D (ANOVA or t-Test), do you have the descriptives table, ANOVA (or t-Test) table, and post hoc table (for the ANOVA) for your second dependent variable?
    6.      Do the analyses in Appendix C and D focus on DIFFERENT dependent variables? (Make sure you answer YES on this one!)
    7.      Do the appendices come AFTER the references?

 

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