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Final Paper (Follow Formatting and Submitting instructions listed below) Your paper will be based on the 9 references that you are able to locate, using book chapters, articles from professional and scientific periodicals, and appropriate Internet sites that I have approved.
The paper must have 14 pages including title page & abstract & bibliography. The paper itself should be organized as follows (use headings and subheadings for 4):
1. Title Page: Include your name, the title of your paper (which should be up to15 words long and should clearly indicate the precise focus of your paper). 2. Abstract: Following APA style, this will be approximately 150 words and represents a brief summary of the information presented in the paper. 3. Introduction (usually only a page or two): Begin with a brief discussion of the topic. Maybe include a few statistics, some descriptive information or definitions, a brief summary of what the problems are. Then clearly state exactly what you intend to do in the pages that follow. 4. Review of Literature (the main body of the paper): Present what you have learned from the reference materials you have located, organized thematically around appropriate sub-topics. Basically, follow your detailed outline. Discuss in some detail the various arguments, research findings, and theories that deal with your topic. Remember that you need to use a minimum of 9 academic sources. Especially important here is that you clearly identify the sources you are using. Keep using such phrases as “According to…,” or “In a study conducted by…,” or “In the opinion of…,” or “So-and-so has argued that…,” or “So-and-so believes that….” This section of the paper SHOULD NOT be presented article by article. Rather, you need to identify commonalities or differences or unifying themes across the sources and that is how your paper needs to be written. 5. Conclusion: Summarize what you now believe to be the main problem and possible solutions. What other information would be important to get to get a better understanding of the topic? What sort of additional research would help? Especially important here is your appreciation for the complexity of the issues involved and your ability to think through these issues carefully and critically. 6. References: At the end of your paper, list all references you cited in your paper— and only those references, along with full bibliographical information for each (authors’ or organizations’ names, year of publication, title of book or article or Internet page, book publisher information or name, volume and page of article or URL for Internet site), arranged alphabetically by first author’s last name. Follow APA style.
The paper must include: title page, abstract, minimum of 10 pages of text, references, all in APA style.
NOTES ABOUT CITING SOURCES: GENERAL PRINCIPLE: Correctly citing sources in the text of a paper is very important because it is a matter of academic honesty. Every time you make reference to an idea, opinion, fact, theory, argument, research study, finding, etc., that you have found in some source, you must clearly indicate that source to show that it is the work of another. This applies not just to direct quotes; every single time you are drawing from, or paraphrasing, one of your sources, you must cite it as your reference. To present the material without citing the source is dishonest because it suggests that the material is your own. Such dishonesty constitutes what is known as plagiarism, one of the most serious of academic offenses, and one which can lead to charges being brought against a student and/or a failing grade for this paper.
Rules for Citing Sources in APA style:
1. WHAT TO CITE: A reference is cited by giving the last name of the author(s) or organization and the year of publication. The name(s) and year should correspond exactly to the listing on the References list at the end of the paper. When using a direct quotation (which should be done only if exceptionally important), use quotation marks, and also include the page number(s) where the quote appeared in the source. Use only last names and year of publication; no first names, initials, degrees, or affiliations of the authors, and no titles of publications or where they were published.
IMPORTANT NOTE: A paper is your work and should be IN YOUR OWN WORDS; using quotations should be sparse. And it is also important to note what we mean by “your words”: you may not simply “cut and paste” wording from any source and pass it off as your own. You must either put the words in quotation marks and cite the source precisely (but as I have said, I don’t really want you to use quotations much), or you must significantly rephrase to make sure you are using your own words. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism, one of the most serious of academic offenses, and I will severely penalize any such instance of academic dishonesty.
2. WHEN TO CITE: The citation should occur as soon in the sentence or paragraph as possible, to immediately draw the attention of your reader to the fact that you are drawing material from an outside source. If you continue over the course of several sentences or even several paragraphs to draw from the same source, it is not necessary to continue to cite it. The general rule is that whenever your reader may not be sure of the source of your information, you should cite the source.
3. WHERE TO CITE: Right in the text of the paper. Do not use footnotes or endnotes. References should be cited as part of the natural flow of text, and as soon as you begin to present information from the source. Do not just stick a citation at the end of a paragraph.
NOTE: You can only cite a reference the book or article that you yourself read. If that book or article contains a reference to some other work, you may not cite that other work as a reference. Thus, if you are reading a book by Smith (2015), and Smith describes a study by Jones (2012), and you want to also mention Jones’s study, your reference is Smith. You could say, “In a 2012 study by Jones (Smith, 2015)…;” or, “According to Smith (2015), Jones conducted a study…;” but you cannot simply cite Jones. In similar fashion, your References page at the end of your paper will list only the actual works that you located and used.
When you are expressing your own observation or opinion, you need to indicate it in the text by phrases such as “I believe,” “it seems to me,” “form my own experience,” etc. If you do not, then it means you are using someone else’s work and it needs to be cited/referenced. Formatting and Submitting: Please adhere to the following guidelines when writing the paper and the summary:
• Use Microsoft Word, or, if you don’t have it, any word processing program with the document saved in Rich Text Format (.rtf) • Use 12-point font, black New Times Roman • Use 1” margins all around • Align all text as well as all headings/subheadings to the left; do not center any text or justify the margins • First paragraph under a heading or sub-heading is aligned left; subsequent paragraphs in the same section are indented one tab • References should be cited properly in the text and listed at the end under the heading ‘References’; do not use any footnotes • Please write the paper entirely in your own words; unless absolutely necessary to make a key point, use direct quotations from any of your sources sparsly (and do not take words verbatim without quotation marks and citing the source because that constitutes plagiarism, a serious form of academic dishonesty). • The References list should be single-spaced, aligned left, with double- spacing between each reference; you do not need to use the “hanging indents” called for in APA style • Do not insert footnotes • Proofread your paper carefully