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Indicate new material in italicized bold print absolutely 10 pages, not including reference do not duplicate work. check for grammar, use APA style. I must be able to read the entire document prior to finalizing in order to check for logic and flow.
READ the paper to make sure the content is consistent and has logic and flow and the most current literature not more than 5 years old. Add to EACH section of chapter 2. Indicate in italicized bold print. Previously I found repetitive paragraphs (wording), grammatical errors
not enough pages I requested 5 pages for a total of 25 pages it was not executed. Please follow the instructions.
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE OF REVIEW
Methods of Searching
There are several strategies of searching for information. Online academic and scholarly databases, including ProQuest, SAGE, Google Scholar, and Google Books, to search for relevant articles and books and good use of secondary and tertiary sources by reviewing the bibliographies of downloaded journal articles in order to obtain leads on other related studies relevant to the research topic but not flagged by the electronic searches (Brown & Sleath, 2015). The study was conducted using searches based on the names of prominent researchers and authors in the field of spirituality in social work, such as Raisuyah Bhagwan.
The quantitative method used for this research being conducted will use these instruments 1. Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) short form, 2. The compassion scale (CS), 3. The daily spiritual experience scale (DSES), and 4. The workplace stress scale (WSS)
For this study, the use of a survey allows for the collection of data from a large and widespread sample size within a short time, with increased anonymity, and at low costs (Ward, Clark, Zabriskie, & Morris, 2012). The quantitative methodology is chosen for a variety of reasons. First, quantitative research methodology facilitates statistical inference, which is the generalization of findings “from a study sample to a target population” (Fitzpatrick & Kazer, 2011, p. 431). As Palinkas (2014) argues, quantitative research methodologies are the most ideal when the researcher seeks to verify whether a cause produces an effect or when the researcher seeks to produce precise statistical findings that can be generalized to larger samples or wider circumstances. Second, in quantitative research, unlike qualitative research, the sample size is greater and controlled in a manner that ensures representative population from which the sample is drawn, which contributes to greater reliability as well as the ability to generalize sample findings (Karami, 2016). Third, the current research will establish whether there is a relationship between spirituality and stress management, compassion fatigue and job satisfaction among social workers. This makes a quantitative research design the most ideal choice because, as Palinkas (2014) argues, it is useful in testing and verifying theories and hypothesis, such as the hypothesis that “there is a positive correlation between spirituality and stress management,” which is one of the hypotheses being tested in the current study. According to Karami (2016) quantitative methodology enables the researcher to relate two or more concepts in order to investigate correlations and to test the existence of relationships among variables.
Theoretical Orientation for the Study
The theory that is most widely associated with spirituality in social work is the transpersonal theory. The transpersonal theory focuses on human beings searching for meaning and relationship with a transcendent reality or a reality beyond the physical, such as God, the creator, or Holy Spirit (Bhagwan, 2013). Transpersonal approaches seek to foster the evolution of higher states of consciousness by facilitating spiritual growth in individuals (Cabrera, 2015). From a transpersonal perspective, consciousness is viewed “as human subject-ness rather than as an object or as the effect of an object-based process” (Hartelius, 2014, p. iv.). Transpersonal experiences can be categorized under five broad categories: mystical experiences, such as spiritual awakenings that cause ecstatic happiness and joy with deep feelings of peacefulness; psychic experiences; death-related experiences, such as near-death experiences; encounter experiences, such as encounters with angels; and exceptional normal experiences (EHEs), such as extraordinary dreams (Bhagwan, 2014).
Examples of transpersonal approaches include: mindfulness, inward contemplation, prayer, meditation, yoga, art therapy, guided imagery, visualization, mandala creation, music therapy, ritual, breath training, storytelling, inward focusing, and altered states of consciousness (Kusilka, 2014; Sloan, 2013; Schredl, 2014). According to Bhagwan (2013), these transpersonal practices should not be considered as the goals of therapy but as tools that can be used for empowerment, mental well-being, and spiritual growth. The acceptance of these transpersonal practices in the field of social work is based on non-empirical evidence that spiritual experiences can stimulate the mental and physical wellbeing of human beings (Bhagwan, 2013). The process of change for social workers who embrace transpersonal approaches is characterized by stress reduction and spiritual growth, which facilitate progress towards spiritual integration or integration of an individual’s sense of connectedness with the self, work, or the community (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2016).
Social workers usually experience firsthand the manners and ways in which people are limited by various factors, including gender, physical, spiritual, social, emotional, and traumatic, among others. If their spiritual growth is limited, social workers are unlikely to understand spiritual clients and cynicism is likely to emerge when faced with accounts of transpersonal experiences narrated by clients (Bhagwan, 2014). Spirituality, is not only important to a social worker due to the fact that it enables social workers to understand and effectively deal with the people they serve, but it also enables social workers to believe in the potentials beyond conscious life, which safeguards them from cynicism when dealing even with the most complicated client issues (Krill, 2014). Being open to transpersonal possibilities enables social workers to find inner peace, particularly when faced with clients’ situations that are beyond the control of the social worker (Decker, Brown, Ong, & Stiney-Ziskind, 2015). In general, the transpersonal paradigm, according to Valverde (2016), is based on the assumption that human beings have potentials that go beyond the normal limits of the ego that can be used to achieve harmony.
The cost of the compassion that social workers experience for others in the course of their altruistic work can be stressful to the extent that it can affect social workers’ physical and mental well-being (Decker, Brown, Ong, & Stiney-Ziskind, 2015). By embracing the transpersonal and developing a relationship that goes beyond the self to include others and the transcendent, social workers can be able to find purpose and meaning in life and in their work (Cabrera, 2015), and be able to deal with the high cost of compassion associated with social work.
This research is expected to make several contributions to transpersonal theory particularly by extending the role of transpersonal practices in the mitigation of compassion fatigue and occupational stress among social workers. While a majority of the existing research has focused on how social workers can draw from their own spirituality to understand and treat spiritual clients (Fortney et al., 2013; Jazaieri et al., 2013), the focus of the current research is more on the role of the use of spirituality in the self-healing of trauma and stressed among social workers. The findings from this study are, therefore, expected to expand the theory of existing studies that have emphasized the importance of spirituality in stress management and promotion of physical and mental well-being among social workers (Goodman & Schorling, 2012; Hulsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, & Lang, 2013; Flook et al., 2013).
Additionally, the findings of the current study show that spirituality is not merely a tool that social workers can rely on to understand their spiritual clients. Another area of theoretical development concerns workplace spirituality. The current research contributes to the discourse on workplace spirituality because as part of addressing the mental and physical well-being of employees, managers in the social work field are increasingly adopting and implementing spiritual leadership, which, according to Giacalone and Jurkiewicz (2010), involves facilitation and promotion of feelings of transcendence among employees through the work process. The research indicates that leaders can foster spirituality among social workers through spiritual leadership and the creation of workplace spirituality (Gupta, Kumar, & Singh, 2014; Afsar, Badir, & Kiani, 2016; Pawar, 2014; Pandey, 2014; Petchsawang & Duchon, 2012). The findings from this study offer insight into the reasons why some spirituality-based techniques might be ineffective in mitigating the negative effects of burnout and occupational stress among social workers. The key factor contributing to this ineffectiveness is a social worker’s inability to find purpose in their professional life or conflict between personal and work life (Laukhuf & Laukhuf, 2016).
Review of the Literature
All types of jobs come with some level of stress. Social work however, is particularly stressful. Existing research portrays social work as a highly demanding profession, the nature of which contributes to stress among professionals in the field (Grant, et al., 2013; Maslach & Leiter, 2016). The research in this area indicates that social workers face extreme work demands on a daily basis (Kawasaki et al., 2015). Consequently, social workers are usually at a very high risk of suffering from compassion fatigue, job dissatisfaction and occupational stress due to the overwhelming demands from their clients. According to Behr (2014), work satisfaction is significantly affected by the stress levels that workers experience in the work place, which also affects their level of productivity. Therefore, the demanding workplace environment puts social workers at a great risk of job dissatisfaction and occupational stress. Ironically, studies in social work settings have shown that social workers enjoy high levels of job satisfaction (Collins, 2008; Rose, 2003). Some of the reasons behind social workers’ high satisfaction have been identified as: high job commitment and high levels of motivation caused by contact with their clients and the feeling that they make a real difference in their clients’ lives (Collins, 2008; Huxley et al., 2005). The innate motivation to make a real difference in someone else’s life is a feeling that can be associated with spirituality based on descriptions of spirituality by Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, and Prashar (2013) as the internal motivation or longing to seek out something. Studies investigating the source of job satisfaction for social workers, despite the fact that they operate within stressful environments, have identified a common theme in the form of “enjoying contact with social service users” (Huxley et al., 2005; Cameron, 2003; Collins, 2008). Collins (2008) links the high job satisfaction levels of social workers to coping mechanisms that enable them to withstand stressful social work environments. Some of these coping mechanisms include; religion, spirituality, and self-actualization (Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013).
Stress is produced from complex interactions between demanding workplace environments and responsibilities, on one hand, and the ability of an individual to cope with these demands on the other (Collins, 2008). According to Chhasatia et al. (2014), approximately one-third of social workers suffer from occupational tress. Multiple attempts have been made in previous studies to understand the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being by investigating the role of spirituality in mitigating depression and preventing suicide (Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013; Delaney, William, & Bisono, 2013; Gordon, Shonin, Zangeneh, & Griffiths, 2014; Kumar & Kumar, 2014). Many of the past researchers in this area have mainly focused on how understanding the influence of spirituality in mitigating stress and improving psychological health is exercised. Ivtzan et al (2013) concluded that the influence of spirituality is exercised through self-actualization and the provision of a feeling of meaning in life, which enhances the innate motivation and job satisfaction of social workers.
Part of the stress experienced by social workers originates from the demands of social work, such as the need for social workers to show compassion at all times. Compassion is, according to (Chhasatia at al., 2014) a key component of social work and gives rise to a condition known as compassion fatigue, which arises when social workers suffer from secondary traumatic stress due to the nature of the job. To manage most of the stress associated with their jobs, many social workers turn to religion and spiritual-techniques, such as meditation, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the stress (Delaney, William, & Bisono, 2013; Gordon, Shonin, Zangeneh, & Griffiths, 2014; Kumar & Kumar, 2014; Rani, Ghani, & Ahmad, 2013). The relationship between spirituality and stress management in social work has been studied for more than ten years but has not resulted in a sufficient amount of evidence that there is or is not a relationship between spirituality and stress among social workers’ but has contributed to the growing interest about the relationship between spirituality and stress in the social work field (Bhagwan, 2013). The available research shows that spirituality has a positive relationship with psychological health (Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013). Ivtzan et al. reported that differences in select predictors of psychological well-being, including meaning in life and self-actualization, can be identified between people with varying levels of spirituality. The research shows that cultivation of aspects of spirituality, such as mindfulness and resilience, among social workers enables the ability to cope with occupational stress and burnout (Harker, Pidgeon, Klaassen, & King, 2016). The research, however, has mainly focused on cultivating mindfulness through education courses offered to social work students (Goodman & Schorling, 2012; Fortney, Luchterhand, Zakletskaia, Zgierska, & Rakel, 2013). Findings from the available research also show that transpersonal or spiritual practices promote empowerment and personal transformations (Bhagwan, 2013). It has been established that social workers who embrace spirituality practices, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction and guided imagery techniques, are more likely to find greater meaning and purpose within their professional and personal lives (Nolan, 2013; Bhagwan, 2013).
The focus in a majority of the previous studies is mainly oni social workers relying on spiritually-based techniques and drawing from the spiritual beliefs of patients to bring peace, acceptance, and reduce stress and mental suffering patients suffering from terminal illnesses, such as cancer (Cook & Silverman, 2013; Beck, Hansen, & Gold, 2015; Kidwell, 2014; Gu, Strauss, Bond, & Cavanagh, 2015; Jallo, Cozens, Smith, & Simpson, 2013). Studies on how social workers can rely on spirituality to manage their own work-related stress are limited. The available research on the use of spirituality by social workers to manage occupational stress has not been narrowed down to a specific aspect of spirituality, such as mindfulness. Instead, the research presents a convergence between spirituality and religion, which are two related concepts but shown to be different (Mandhouj, Aubin, Amirouche, Perroud, & Huguelet, 2014; McEvoy, Burton, & Milan, 2014).
In regards to compassion fatigue, previous research has demonstrated that compassion fatigue and stress can cause social workers to be less compassionate, less satisfied, and less effective in their work (Newberry et al., 2013; Fortney et al., 2013). The protective quality of spirituality potentially prevents social workers from experiencing the adverse effects of compassion fatigue (Lynch & Lobo, 2012). According to Sprang, Craig, and Clark (2011), spirituality acts as a buffer against compassion fatigue among social workers. A positive relationship has also been established between spirituality and job satisfaction (Altaf & Awan, 2011; Robert, Young, & Kelly, 2006). Wendy, Cooper and Penz (2009) reported that spirituality contributed to positive thinking and hope, which had a positive impact on job satisfaction, while Chawla and Guda (2010) reported that spirituality increased job satisfaction and reduced employees’ chances of leaving their jobs.
The positive impact of spirituality on stress varies depending on the gender and experience of a social worker. Previous research indicates that the more experienced social workers demonstrate greater abilities to cope with stress (McFadden, Campbell, & Taylor, 2014; Hertel et al., 2013). Additionally, while both male and female participants who rely on spirituality usually show signs of reduced stress, several studies have shown that the impact of spirituality is usually greater among female participants than male participants (Katz & Toner, 2012; Horn et al., 2015; Gibbons et al., 2012).
Many types of social work, such as nursing, require workers to be passionate for the best outcomes. For many social workers, passion for their jobs is derived from their individual spirituality, which affords meaning to their work regardless of monetary or other forms of tangible benefits. The relationship between spirituality and stress among social workers is important for its practical implications. For instance, findings can be used by employers or management to establish whether or not implementation of workplace spirituality can contribute positively to various forms of well-being for employees. Spirituality is important during periods of stress as it is considered a coping mechanism. According to Baldacchino (2017), spirituality affords people a greater purpose and meaning to their lives thereby, facilitating easier connectedness with others in the workplace as well as more commitment to the organization. Research has demonstrated that firms with high levels of workplace spirituality tend to have working environments characterized by completeness, joy, positivism, satisfaction, trust, and low-stress levels (Majeed et al., 2018; Daniel, 2015). This implies that workplace spirituality reduces occupational stress for workers.
The benefits of spirituality are derived from the various dimensions or aspects of spirituality. Daniel (2015) identified three aspects of workplace spirituality: meaningful work, inner life, and sense of community. After investigating the relationship of these dimensions with workplace stress in the United States and Mexico, Daniel reported that while the relationships between inner life and sense of community with work stress were insignificant, meaningful work had a significant negative relationship with work stress. The implication being that involvement in meaningful work reduces the amount of work stress experienced by employees. This finding has been validated by multiple related studies. For instance, Kennedy (2016) reported a reverse relationship by establishing that spirituality enhances engagement in meaningful work in four main ways. First, a spiritual worker has a desire to do spiritual work, which is defined as work that pleases God or serves the Almighty’s purpose. Second, spirituality motivates workers to place more emphasis on their job rather than the monetary benefits. Third, engagement in meaningful work contributes to the spiritual growth of the worker, which is an invaluable intangible benefit. Finally, spiritual workers afford great importance to impacting other peoples’ lives, which strengthens their spirituality and adds to their meaningful work. Van der Walt (2018) also reported that workplace spirituality improves productivity and employee engagement in the workplace.
A meta-analysis on workplace spirituality performed by Kumar and Kumar (2015) showed that the application of workplace spirituality enhanced the productivity of an organization, reduced employees’ turnover rates, and improved competitiveness. Kumar and Kumar also linked workplace spirituality to the maintenance of work-life balance which contributes to positive individual and organizational outcomes and less job-related stress. Cleary and Donohue (2018) linked spirituality to increased productivity and better management of issues in social workers dealing with addicts. Chen and Sheng (2013) reported that workplace spirituality affords employees fresh perceptions of themselves and their lives while Djafri and Noordin (2017) reported that workplace spirituality enhances the commitments of workers to their organizations. Daniel and Chatelain-Jardon (2015) investigated the link between individual spirituality and organizational commitment and reported that spiritual workers demonstrate greater commitments to the organizations and exhibit more innovative behaviors. Pawar (2016) reported positive correlations between workplace spirituality and each of psychological well- being, spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Thus, most of the literature indicates that spirituality has a positive effect on occupational stress for social workers.
Research concerning spirituality and compassion has focused on the individual spirituality enhancing the capabilities of social workers to exhibit compassion and care for clients (Fortney et al., 2013), particularly clients with incurable or near death illnesses (Jazaieri et al., 2014). The compassion fatigue associated with the nature of most social work causes spiritual vulnerabilities in social workers. These vulnerabilities are manifest in several ways including, hopelessness, loss of focus and purpose in the workplace, and internationalization (Dombo & Gray, 2013). In response, research in this field has focused on ways in which the purpose, focus, and self-motivation of social workers can be reinvigorated via spiritual approaches meant to limit occupational stress and enhance the ability of social workers to cope with compassion fatigue. One of the strategies adopted is the integration spirituality in social work curriculums (Dombo & Gray, 2013).
According to Sterba (2014), compassion fatigue influences the manner in which social workers operate in the workplace when engaging in day-to-day activities and can cause the workers to be dismissive, less focused, indifferent, or even outright rude to patients or clients. Research has shown that there are notable differences between how spiritual and non-spiritual workers respond to adversity and compassion fatigue in the workplace. These differences can be seen clearly in the way spiritual and non-spiritual workers manage patients with terminal illnesses, how they facilitate the recovery of patients, and the way they go about providing emotional and physical support to patients (Sterba, 2014). In addition to facilitating feelings of compassion for patients, research demonstrates that individual and workplace spirituality also assists social workers in overcoming their own personal experiences of burnout, fatigue, and occupational stress in general (Johnson & Naidoo, 2013).
Burn out is a psychological disorder caused by extended exposure to stressors in the workplace (Maslach & Leiter, 2016). It is particularly prominent in careers, such as social work, where workers are required to show compassion and self-lessness regardless of what they might personally be going through. Research has demonstrated that burnout can reduce an employee’s job satisfaction and also affect their work-life balance (Hombrados-Mendieta & Cosano-Rivas, 2011). This has the potential of limiting the employees’ effectiveness in the workplace as well as their general happiness. However, research indicates that spirituality can be a solution to these problems (Wilkinson, 2012).
A study by Fortney et al. (2013) concluded that spiritual practices, such as mindfulness, reduced stress, anxiety, and burnout and enhanced compassion levels, job satisfaction, and quality of life among primary healthcare providers. Research indicates that the greater the individual spirituality of a social worker, the more effective the worker is likely to be in managing job-related stress (Dwivedi & Ameta, 2015). Workplace spirituality has also been linked to improved job satisfaction and better stress management by workers. According to Majeed, Mustamil, and Nazri (2018), workplace spirituality has three dimensions namely, community sense meaningful work, and alignment with the values of the organization. Meaningful work involves an innate feeling of importance and purposiveness in the workplace (Majeed, Mustamil, & Nazri, 2018). When employees feel their work is important and purposive and when the values of the organization reflect their own personal values, then employees are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and more effective in managing the associated stress. According to Arnetz et al. (2013), the effectiveness of spirituality in managing occupational stress is enhanced when employee individual spirituality is complemented by workplace.
As the positive receptions of individual and workplace spirituality continue to grow research has concentrated on understanding how each practice can be used to manage social workers’ occupational stress and other forms of psychological and emotional stress. A study by Hulsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, and Lang (2013) showed that spirituality in the form of mindfulness can effectively manage stress and emotional exhaustion of social workers and improve their job satisfaction. Fortney et al. (2013) reported similar findings in addition to showing that individual spirituality reduced burnout, improved quality of life, reduced anxiety, and enhanced the mental well-being and strength of social workers. Other studies have reported similar findings (Flook et al., 2013; Goodman & Schorling, 2012). The implication is that individual spirituality and workplace spirituality should be adopted more widely in the social work field as a mechanism for stress management and enhancing job satisfaction.
A review of the literature shows that there is widespread unanimity that the nature of social work can cause compassion fatigue and occupational stress among social workers. It also was established through the literature review that spirituality plays an important role in mitigating the negative effects of occupational stress for social workers and there is positive relationships between spirituality and compassion fatigue management and job satisfaction. The literature also shows that spirituality impacts the levels of job satisfaction among social workers and that spiritual social workers show a greater levels of compassion towards their patients.
Social workers who embrace practices of spirituality are more likely to find greater meaning and purpose within their professional and personal lives. However, the available research on the role that spirituality plays in the mitigation and reduction of stress among social workers is limited. There is a research gap focusing on how individual social workers and institutions can rely on specific aspects of spirituality, such as mindfulness and guided imagery, to overcome occupational stress rather than to treat or take care of clients with stress.
Critique of Previous Research Methods
Although research has shown that spirituality is positively correlated to stress management (Delaney, William, & Bisono, 2013; Gordon, Shonin, Zangeneh, & Griffiths, 2014; Kumar & Kumar, 2014; Rani, Ghani, & Ahmad, 2013), there is a lot of debate and confusion over the definitions of the term spirituality (Ivtzan, Chan, Gardner, & Prashar, 2013). Philosophical ideologies of spirituality vary depending on various factors, such as culture, race and religion. Therefore, indicators of spirituality being acceptable in certain cultures might be inappropriate for cultures with different values (Moberg, 2002). Similarly, indicators of stress and psychological well-being vary depending on groups and cultures. Consequently, scales for measuring stress or spirituality usually lack universal applicability because diversity in cultures mean that these scales might overlook some distinctive norms that are specific to a group (Moberg, 2002).
According to Bauer (2016), the conflation between religiousness and spirituality, the heterogeneity of their definitions, and the multiple tools available to measure each, make it difficult to measure the variables empirically. Since the two variables spirituality is difficult to measure, indicators that point to their existence are usually used while assessing participants in studies. The most common stress indicators include: alcohol dependence, insomnia, lack of work satisfaction and pleasure, and fatigue (Larkin, Felitti, & Anda, 2014; Kompier, Taris, & Veldhoven, 2012). The common indicators of spirituality, on the other hand, include; universalism, altruism, benevolence, and traditional values (Lindeman, Blomqvist, & Takada, 2012). According to Lindeman et al. (2012), spirituality is said to promote hope, purpose, inner peace, joy, job satisfaction, and positive relationships with others. Researchers have mainly relied on the presence or absence of indicators of spirituality and stress in order to assess the impact of the variable on the life style and well-being of individuals (Ammerman, 2013; Dahl, 2014). For instance, Piko, Kovacs, and Kriston (2014) assessed the impact of spirituality on satisfaction with life among youth and reported that the happiness of contemporary youths is correlated to their spirituality: those who have a purpose for, and see meaning in, their lives exhibit less pessimism and stress and greater satisfaction with their lives.
Some researchers, such as Meezenbroek et al. (2012), attempted to develop multidimensional questionnaires that transcended specific religious beliefs in order to measure the role of spirituality among participants, regardless of whether participants adhere to a religion or not. One such scale is the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List with seven subscales that transcend religions and extend to those participants without religious beliefs in order to assess an individual’s connectedness with a transcendent, nature, others and with oneself (Meezenbroek et al., 2011). In a study meant to link spirituality and religion to psychological well-being, Ivtzan et al. (2013) measured levels of spirituality and religion by categorizing participants in four groups based on their perceived levels of involvement in religion and spirituality.
In the current study, the spirituality of respondents was measured through the using the daily spiritual experience scale (DSES) by Underwood and Teresi (2002). The presence of occupational stress among respondents in the current study was measured with the workplace stress scale (WSS) developed by the American Institute of Stress and Marlin which evaluates how work impacts a worker’s emotional well-being and personal life (Saini, Kaur, & Das, 2014; Daft & Marcic, 2006). Job satisfaction was evaluated using the minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) (Buchanan & Bryman, 2009; McWha-Hermann, Maynard, & Berry, 2015). The compassion scale (CS) by Pommier (2011) was used to measure the respondents’ compassion fatigue.
The literature review has introduced a positive correlation between social work and stress development and between workplace spirituality and stress reduction among social workers. The literature review also reveals that spirituality impacts the levels of job satisfaction among social workers and that spiritual social workers show greater levels of compassion towards their patients. However, there is a research gap individual social workers and institutions can rely on specific aspects of spirituality, such as mindfulness and guided imagery, to overcome occupational stress. Consequently, the purpose of this research is to determine whether social workers rely on spirituality to mitigate or reduce their stress.
This research is based on transpersonal theory, which is the theory that is most widely associated with spirituality in social work. Transpersonal theory focuses on human beings searching for meaning and relationship with a transcendent reality or a reality beyond the physical, such as God, the creator, or higher power, or the self (Bhagwan, 2013). This research is expected to make several contributions particularly by extending the theory about the role of transpersonal practices in mitigation of compassion fatigue and occupational stress among social workers.