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The glass ceiling phenomenon has been around for a long period of time and has generally been used to discuss the lack of senior executive opportunities for women in corporations. However, according to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, the glass ceiling refers to “the unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements.”
In the first topic of this module, research the glass ceiling phenomenon. Do you believe that the glass ceiling still exists? If so, explain what a strategic leader can do to end the glass ceiling phenomenon in his/her organization. If not, explain what has changed.
In the second topic, regardless of the stance you took above, discuss some “best practices” that can be implemented in all organizations to ensure that a glass ceiling does not deter the leadership opportunities for all employees (e.g., what should organizations stop doing, continue doing, or start doing?).
ANSWER EACH TOPIC SEPARATELY. USE AT LEAST FOUR OF THE REFERENCES BELOW TO ANSWER AND CITE PROPERLY THROUGHOUT THE DISCUSSION.
Carless, S. A., Wearing, A. J., & Mann, L. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership.Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 389–405.
Charismatic leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
Ivey, G. W., & Kline, T. B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246–262.
Kaifi, B. A., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2010). Transformational leadership of Afghans and Americans.Journal of Service Science and Management, 3(1), 150–159.
Riggio, R. E. (2012, October 7). What is charisma and charismatic leadership? Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/201210/what-is-charisma-and-charismatic-leadership
Sandber, Y., & Moreman, C. M. (2011). Common threads among different forms of charismatic leadership. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(9).
Baker, J., & Cangemi, J. (2016). Why are there so few women CEOs and senior leaders in corporate america? Organization Development Journal, 34(2), 31-43.
Transactional leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm
Transformational leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm
Traywick, T. (2008). Reagan’s Transformational Leadership. YouTube Video. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puB0Bnt5xfY&feature=related
Optional Readings and References
Bass, B. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision.Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31.
Farag, A. A., McGuinness, S. T., & Anthony, M. K. (2009). Nurses’ perception of their manager’s leadership style and unit climate: Are there generational differences. Journal of Nursing Management, 26, 26-24.
Fayol’s 14 principles of management. (1998, Mar 22). New Straits Times
Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Odumeru, J. A., & Ifeanyi, G. O. (2013). Transformational vs. transactional leadership theories: Evidence in literature. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(2), 355–361. Retrieved from http://irmbrjournal.com/papers/1371451049.pdf
Yukl, G. (2014). Leadership in organizations (8th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.