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Midterm Exam Instructions:
Choose any of the proposed questions for the midterm exam (please choose only one question) and write an essay in response to the question of your choice.
1. The production of heroin and cocaine (and other narcotic substances) requires a significant amount of precursor chemicals. Most drug trafficking organizations do not have any legitimate source for these chemicals domestically and have to procure them abroad. Discuss the illicit precursor trafficking.
2. In January 2014, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions 2134 and 2136 required all states to adopt sanctions, namely freezing assets and restricting travel, on any individual or entity involved in wildlife and forest trafficking. Study the text of resolutions and elaborate on the illegal wildlife trade in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in the Central African Republic. Who are the perpetrators? What are their motivations and how do they benefit from the illegal wildlife trade? What specific natural resources are exploited? What are the consequences of the illegal wildlife trade in these two African states, regionally, and globally?
3. What would organized crime look like if it were dominated by women? Analyze the autobiography of a female organized crime figure with a view to the importance of gender in a criminal organization. Would a woman-led organized crime group be less violent? What other features is it likely to possess?
4. Fraudulent medicines pose a considerable public health threat as they can fail to cure, may harm and even kill patients. Compounding this public health risk is the fact that the supply chain for medicines operates at a global level. Discuss a cross-border supply chain for the illicit trade in a counterfeit pharmaceutical product of your choice.
5. What is the role of technology in responding to trafficking in cultural property? What technological developments have been used by international organizations and national governments to respond to this crime?
6. Review the existing academic literature on “organized crime” and “transnational organized crime.” Do these concepts refer to the same phenomena? Can these two concepts be used interchangeably? What are the major differences between OC and TOC (if any)? Do these differences (if at all) impact the work, structure, activities of national law enforcement and security agencies and/or the work of international organizations? How are OC and TOC defined in US legislation?
7. How did the COVID-19 health crisis impacted drug trafficking operations and drug consumption in different parts of the world? Are the COVID-19 changes likely to only have a temporary effect on drug trafficking or are the changes caused by the pandemic likely to stay?
Writing Requirements and Tips:
– Do not go off topic. You must respond the exact question. Please copy the question in the beginning of the essay.
– The essay must be between 800 and 1,000 words long (excluding references);
– Use Times New Roman 12, double or single space;
– Use at least three academic sources* to support your argument. Feel free to use any additional (non-academic ) sources., include REFERENCE PAGE
– Document your sources. All references must be consistent with the APA Style.
* Academic sources are books, peer-reviewed journal articles, and published reports written by experts for an academic audience. Newspaper articles and government reports are not academic sources. Watch this short instructional video about scholarly sources: