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This is a group project about a leadership case (https://www.theguarian.com/technology/2016/jul/07/tesla-elon-musk-autopilot-death-crisis-management) .
My part is of this project is the assumptions and core problems. I have uploaded the leadership case methodology as well as the evaluation of this work .( my part has been highlighted)
The assumptions based from the article and other article to support it this assumptions .
My group has identified the core problem as a leadership / managerial style issues( based on the article ). you would need to write on that and find other articles to prove or support that. Also follow the marking rubric .
Team Case Evaluation
||Marking Criteria||Required Elements||Comments|
0-2.4 below expectation
|5 Brief overview of the case study
5 Includes the core problem, overview of alternatives and analysis, decision and justification
0–7.4 below expectation
|5 SWOT: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
5 Assessment of Leadership
5 Analysis of Internal HR
0-2.4 below expectation
|5 state relevant assumptions
5 classified assumptions as a constraint or enhancement
0-4.9 below expectation
|5 one concise, specific statement relating to the HR / Leadership issue(s)
5 separated symptoms from the core problem
0-4.9 below expectation
|5 alternatives are supported with information from the situational analysis
5 each alternative is viable to solving core problem
0-2.4 below expectation
|5 tables and tools used
5 criteria identified
5 criteria quantified and authenticated
5 financial analysis
|Analysis of Alternatives||
0–7.4 below expectation
|5 each alternative is measured against the evaluative criteria
5 analysis of each alternative
5 advantages and disadvantages of each alternative
5 criteria need to be prioritized according to the situational analysis
|Decision and Justification
0-9.9 below expectation
|5 selected alternative provides the most viable solution to the problem
5 alternative selected is justified
5 clear demonstration of how the decision best meets the criteria
5 disadvantages of the selected alternative are managed or mitigated
5 analysis of financial implications
0-9.9 below expectation
|5 detailed operational plan identifying who, what, when, why, and how
5 overview of strategic considerations including objectives, strategies, and competitive advantage
5 proposed schedule of events identified by quarter
0-2.4 below expectation
|5 references in APA style all work of other individuals including course notes, textbooks, journals, periodicals, websites and all other sources
|Format and Structure
0-2.4 below expectation
|5 overall organization and appearance
5 title page
5 table of contents
5 clarity of expression
5 free of spelling and grammatical error
5 appendices including graphics, charts, diagrams, statements, etc.
|Keltie, Sara, Jamie
March 26 LATEST
|Yes/No||Submitted by specified due date and time via Turnitin|
|Yes/No||Submitted team log and peer evaluations|
MGT 2325 / MGT 2355
Case Methodology Manual
Objective of Case Analysis
The objective of case analysis is to develop your analytical, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities. As you proceed through your business studies and your career, you will frequently asked to analyse and solve business situations. Case methodology provides you with a systematic and methodical approach to doing so.
What is a Case?
- A business situation which has existed in a firm to which a solution is not given.
- A collection of facts with which the analyst is required to work in order to achieve the best possible solution.
- A collection of facts which the real business person does not ordinarily have collected in such a concise form.
Preparing to complete a Case Analysis
Step One: The Short Preparation
- Read the case. You should then be able to answer the following questions:
- Who is the decision maker in this case, and what is their position and responsibilities?
- What appears to be the issue or concern, problem, challenge, or opportunity and its significance for the organization?
- Why has the issue arisen and why is the decision-maker involved now?
- When does the decision-maker have to decide, resolve, act or dispose of the issue? What is the urgency to the situation?
- Review the exhibits and appendices to see what numbers have been provided.
- Review the case headings to see what areas are covered in more depth.
- Review the case questions if they have been provided. This may give you some clues are what the main issues are to be resolved.
You should now be familiar with what the case study is about, and are ready to begin the process of analyzing it. You are not done yet! Many students mistakenly believe that this is all the preparation needed for a team discussion of a case study. If this was the extent of your preparation, your ability to contribute to the team discussion would likely be very limited. You need to go further to prepare the case using the next step. One of the primary reasons for doing the short preparation process is to give you an indication of how much work will need to be done to prepare the case analysis properly.
Step Two: The Long Preparation
At this point, the task consists of two parts:
- A detailed reading of the case, and then
- Analyzing the case.
When you are doing the detailed reading of the case study, look for the following sections:
- Opening paragraph: introduces the situation;
- Background information: industry, organization, products, history, competition, financial information, and anything else of significance;
- Specific (functional) area of interest: marketing, finance, operations, human resources, or integrated;
- The specific problem or decision(s) to be made;
- Alternatives open to the decision maker, which may or may not be stated in the case; and
- Conclusion: sets up the task, any constraints or limitations, and the urgency of the situation.
Most, but not all case studies will follow this format. The purpose here is to thoroughly understand the situation and the decisions that will need to be made. Take your time, make notes, and keep focused on your objectives.
Analyzing the case should take the following steps:
- Defining the issue(s)
- Analyzing the case data
- Generating alternatives
- Selecting decision criteria
- Analyzing and evaluating alternatives
- Selecting the preferred alternative
- Developing an action/implementation plan
Defining the issue(s)/Problem Statement
The problem statement should be a clear, concise statement of exactly what needs to be addressed. This is not easy to write! The work that you did in the short preparation answered the basic questions. Now it is time to decide what the main issues to be addressed are going to be in much more detail. Asking yourself the following questions may help:
- What appears to be the leadership problem(s) here?
- How do I know that this is a problem? Note that by asking this question, you will be helping to differentiate the symptoms of the problem from the problem itself. Example: while declining productivity or low morale are a problem when they occur, they are in fact, symptoms of underlying problems which need to addressed. You have to determine what issue leads to lower productivity or poor morale?
- What are the immediate issues that need to be addressed? This helps to differentiate between issues that can be resolved within the context of the case, and those that are bigger issues that needed to addressed at another time (preferably by someone else!).
- Differentiate between importance and urgency for the issues identified. Some issues may appear to be urgent, but upon closer examination are relatively unimportant, while others may be far more important (relative to solving our problem) than urgent. You want to deal with important issues in order of urgency to keep focused on your objective. Important issues are those that have a significant effect on:
- strategic direction of the company,
- source of competitive advantage,
- morale of the company’s employees, and/or
- customer satisfaction.
The problem statement may be framed as a question, for example What should Joe do to ensure ethical leadership is in place? or How can Company XYZ plan for leadership succession? Usually the problem statement has to be re-written several times during the analysis of a case, as you peel back the layers of symptoms or causation.
Analyzing Case Data
In analyzing the case data, you are trying to answer the following:
- Why or how did these issues arise? You are trying to determine cause and effect for the problems identified. You cannot solve a problem that you cannot determine the cause of! It may be helpful to think of the organization in question as consisting of the following components:
- resources, such as materials, equipment, or supplies, and
- people who transform these resources using
- processes, which creates something of greater value.
Now, where are the problems being caused within this framework, and why?
- Who is affected most by this issues? You are trying to identify who are the relevant stakeholders to the situation, and who will be affected by the decisions to be made.
- What are the constraints and opportunities implicit to this situation? It is very rare that resources are not a constraint, and allocations must be made on the assumption that not enough will be available to please everyone.
- What do the numbers tell you? You need to take a look at the numbers given in the case study and make a judgment as to their relevance to the problem identified. Not all numbers will be immediately useful or relevant, but you need to be careful not to overlook anything. When deciding to analyze numbers, keep in mind why you are doing it, and what you intend to do with the result. Use common sense and comparisons to industry standards when making judgments as to the meaning of your answers to avoid jumping to conclusions.
There are myriad tools available to analyze business cases. There are also some very good sites that help you understand these tools including www.netmba.com and www.123manage.com).
When you analyze a business case, you are really doing it from three levels:
- Macro environmental scanning
- PEST analysis (opportunities and threats stemming from Political-Legal, Economic, Socio-cultural, and Technological factors)
- Industry context
- 5 forces model of competition (substitute products, suppliers, buyers, new entrants and competitive rivalry)
- Driving forces – major forces of change affecting all firms (i.e. globalization, mergers, de-integration, etc)
- Key success factors – characteristics necessary for success regardless of strategy
- Company resources, capabilities and strengths
- Value chain analysis
- Financial statement analysis (liquidity, profitability, resource utilization)
- Leadership analysis – mission, vision, values and objectives
- Resources (tangible and intangible), capabilities (teams of resources), core competencies (sources of competitive advantage)
This section deals with different ways in which the problem can be resolved. Typically, there are many and being creative at this stage helps. Things to remember at this stage are:
- Be realistic! While you might be able to find a dozen alternatives, keep in mind that they should be realistic and fit within the constraints of the situation;
- The alternatives should be mutually exclusive, that is, they cannot happen at the same time;
- Not making a decision pending further investigation is not an acceptable decision for any case study that you will analyze. A manager can always delay making a decision to gather more information, which is not managing at all! The whole point to this exercise is to learn how to make good decisions, and having imperfect information is normal for most business decisions, not the exception;
- Doing nothing as in not changing your strategy can be a viable alternative, provided it is being recommended for the correct reasons, as will be discussed below;
- Avoid the meat sandwich method of providing only two other clearly undesirable alternatives to make one reasonable alternative look better by comparison. This will be painfully obvious to the reader, and just shows laziness on your part in not being able to come up with more than one decent alternative; and
- Keep in mind that any alternative chosen will need to be implemented at some point, and if serious obstacles exist to successfully doing this, then you are the one who will look bad for suggesting it.
Strategic case analysis looks at alternatives from two levels: a higher, corporate strategy level and secondary, functional level strategies.
- Corporate Level Issues – what markets should we be in?, how can the company generate sustainable competitive advantage?
- Functional Level Issues – how should the functional departments support the overall business level strategies?
Once the alternatives have been identified, a method of evaluating them and selecting the most appropriate one needs to be used to arrive at a decision.
Key Decision Criteria
A very important concept to understand, they answer the question of how you are going to decide which alternative is the best one to choose. Other than choosing randomly, we will always employ some criteria in making any decision. Think about the last time that you make a purchase decision for an article of clothing. Why did you choose the article that you did? The criteria that you may have used could have been:
Note that any one of these criteria could appropriately finish the sentence, the brand/style that I choose to purchase must…. These criteria are also how you will define or determine that a successful purchase decision has been made. For a business situation, the key decision criteria are those things that are important to the organization making the decision, and they will be used to evaluate the suitability of each alternative recommended.
Key decision criteria should be:
- Brief, preferably in point form, such as
- improve (or at least maintain) profitability,
- increase sales, market share, or return on investment,
- enhance employee motivation or satisfaction,
- maintain customer satisfaction, corporate image,
- be consistent with the corporate mission or strategy,
- within our present (or future) resources and capabilities,
- within acceptable risk parameters,
- ease or speed of implementation,
- employee morale, safety, or turnover,
- retain flexibility, and/or
- minimize environmental impact.
- Measurable, at least to the point of comparison, such as alternative A will improve profitability more that alternative B.
- Be related to your problem statement, and alternatives. If you find that you are talking about something else, that is a sign of a missing alternative or key decision criteria, or a poorly formed problem statement.
Students tend to find the concept of key decision criteria very confusing, so you will probably find that you re-write them several times as you analyze the case. They are similar to constraints or limitations, but are used to evaluate alternatives.
Evaluation of Alternatives
If you have done the above properly, this should be straightforward. You measure the alternatives against each key decision criteria. Often you can set up a simple table with key decision criteria as columns and alternatives as rows, and write this section based on the table. Each alternative must be compared to each criteria and its suitability ranked in some way, such as met/not met, or in relation to the other alternatives, such as better than, or highest. This will be important to selecting an alternative. Another method that can be used is to list the advantages and disadvantages (pros/cons) of each alternative, and then discussing the short and long term implications of choosing each. Note that this implies that you have already predicted the most likely outcome of each of the alternatives. Some students find it helpful to consider three different levels of outcome, such as best, worst, and most likely, as another way of evaluating alternatives.
You must have one! Business people are decision-makers; this is your opportunity to practice making decisions. Give a justification for your decision (use the KDC’s). Check to make sure that it is one and only one of your alternatives and that it does resolve what you defined as the problem.
Report Format for a Written Case Analysis:
- Executive Summary
- Situation Analysis
- Central Problem
- Evaluative Criteria
- Analysis of Alternatives
- Decision and Justification
- Bibliography and Appendix/Appendices
- Executive Summary
The executive summary is completed last and appears at the beginning of the report. It should provide an overview of the key facts of the report. Often, the summary may be the only part of the written report read by a senior executive. It should provide adequate detail to allow the executive to make a go/no go decision. Should the executive need more information, the body of the report and appendices will provide it. The executive summary is the most important element of the report. The information and conclusions presented in the executive summary must be supported by the facts and detailed analysis included in the report.
The Executive Summary:
- Is a “Stand alone” document;
- Appears first but done last; and
- Is an overview of all key facts.
- Key Factors from the situation analysis;
- The core problem or issue;
- The chosen alternative and its reasons for selection;
- Any significant issues which may arise from the chosen alternatives and recommendations to deal with these issues;
- Benefits to the organization resulting from the decision; and
- Description of the implementation
Your Executive Summary should be:
- A maximum of two pages in length;
- Written in full sentences and essay format;
- Written from a client/consultant perspective; and
- Positively position your solution.
- Situational Analysis
The situational analysis is an objective evaluation of an organization’s internal and external environments.
It is completed in order to determine:
- The central problem/issue facing the organization;
- The organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which must be used and/or dealt with in order to address/solve the core problem/issue; and
- The organization’s mission short and long term objectives. They will be used later in determining the best solution.
To successfully complete the Situational Analysis, it is recommended that you complete the following steps:
- Carefully read the case several times
- Reread the case frequently during the period you are working on it
- Determine the key facts and opinions, underline them or write them down
- Facts may be stated explicitly in the case or deduced from the given data
- If you miss or misinterpret an important fact, your solution may not be successful
- Any financial or statistical information provided must be fully assessed
- Record the relevant facts.
There are two parts to the Situational Analysis:
- Internal Environmental Analysis (Strengths and Weaknesses)
- External Environmental Analysis (Opportunities and Threats)
- Internal Analysis (Strengths and Weaknesses)
The internal analysis is done to thoroughly understand the current situation in the organization and to determine its key strengths and weaknesses. An organization’s ability to take advantage of opportunities and/or fend off threats depends on its strengths and weaknesses.
Note strengths are “what is now, not what might be in the future.” For example, a key strength is we have increased market share by 10 % in the last year – not we plan to increase market share by 10% next year.
Quantification of strengths and weaknesses dramatically enhances the meaningfulness of your analysis. Indicating that sales have increased is interesting, but indicating that this year sales increased 15% while the size of the market increased by only 5% is illuminating. If the information is available make sure it is used. Students may need to manipulate financial data provided in order to make it more meaningful.
You should determine an organization’s strengths and weaknesses relative to:
Mission, short and long term objectives, corporate values and management philosophy, company culture;
Target markets and positioning;
Financial performance including sales, net income, gross margin, cash flow, ROI;
Marketing including products, prices, promotion, channels, personnel, policies;
Use of technology; and
Research and development.
External Environmental Analysis (Opportunities and Threats)
The external or macro environment is made up of factors over which the organization has very limited or no control, but which pose ever changing opportunities and threats. The external environment may change quickly or more slowly. Many key environmental changes happen over time. For the organizations which recognize the trends early, significant opportunities often exist. Those who do not recognize the trends may face significant threats.
For example, the law in Ontario has changed to prevent smoking in public places. Some bar/restaurant owners recognized early that a trend toward non-smoking was happening and changed their marketing strategies and were not impacted – while others did not and went out of business.
Quantification of opportunities and threats dramatically enhances the meaningfulness of the analysis. Indicating that a market is growing is interesting but indicating that the market growth last year was 15% and is projected to grow by 15% annually for each of the next 5 years is illuminating. If the information is available make sure it is used.
You should determine an organization’s opportunities and threats relative to:
- Macro-environmental factors such as: competitive, regulatory, environmental, social and technological forces;
- Market/Customer factors such as: market segments, customer profiles, demographic factors, geographic factors, needs, attitudes, lifestyles, buying behaviours, buying centres, buying processes;
- Competition: Who are you competitors? What are their strengths and weaknesses?;
- Marketing Intermediaries: What are the significant opportunities and/or threats associated with changes or trends relating to specific intermediaries or intermediaries in general (i.e. middlemen, physical distribution firms, marketing services firms, financial institutions, electronic commerce, supply change management; and
- Suppliers: What are the opportunities or threats associated with changes or trends relating to specific suppliers or suppliers in general (i.e. number, size, location, use of technology, terms or payment, level of support provided, product quality, product innovation, product availability.
When completing your Internal and External Analysis you should:
- Have a minimum of five points each of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats;
- Make no mention of the problem to be solved at this time;
- Avoid mixing internal/external factors; do not mention the organization being analyzed in the external analysis;
- There will not necessarily be opportunities or threats for each factor listed; and
- A particular trend/change could fall under several factors. Do not include the information more than once.
As in real business situations, case studies rarely supply all relevant facts and they may not be available through research because of time, resource or other constraints. It may be necessary to make assumptions for important missing information you feel is needed to enhance your solution. Students should list the assumptions in the report and indicate whether or not each assumption is a constraint for the company or an enhancement.
- Central Problem:
A case method approach to decision making may be utilized to address small business problems, complex corporate issues, personal issues – in fact case method is suitable for assisting in making any decision. It’s a decision making model.
Having completed the situation analysis it is time to define the central problem. The
pattern of facts, opinions, SWOTs, as well having a sense of the organization’s mission and objectives gained from the analysis will allow you to determine the central problem.
The central problem should be clearly stated in one sentence and is based on the analysis of the SWOT. The problem can be written as either a statement or as a question.
Be sure that you are discussing the core problem and not a “symptom” of the problem.
- Evaluative Criteria:
Evaluative Criteria are the factors most important to an organization that are used to guide decision-making. The most important factors are often contained in an organization’s mission/vision statements and in the organization’s objectives. The solution which can best meet the evaluative criteria is usually the solution which is most likely to be successful.
Before evaluating possible courses of action and making a decision one must identify the criteria against which the alternatives will be compared.
Examples of evaluative criteria are:
- Customer satisfaction, Short-term profits, Long-term profits, Sales, Market share, Image, Company geographic growth, Product line growth, Product quality, Employee growth and satisfaction, Innovation, Return-on-investment (ROI), Time to Market, Image, Commitment to the natural environment, Corporate citizenry, Positive supplier relations, Positive intermediary relations, Commitment to the appropriate use of technology, Level of risk, Etc.
When completing your Evaluative Criteria, you should:
- Ensure that they are based on the core problem and SWOT;
- Prioritize them, most important criteria comes first;
- Quantify each criterion to the extent possible, increase market share by 10% in one year;
- Provide justification as to why you chose the criteria that you did; and
- Develop a list of three to five evaluative criteria.
It is now time to develop alternative solutions to the central leadership problem defined above. Based on the SWOTs identified in the situation analysis, plus the evaluative criteria defined in the previous section, develop a number of potentially viable alternative courses of action (alternatives) that could be taken to resolve the central problem.
Please note that a “status quo” or continuing with your current plan alternative should also be assessed as a possible solution.
Alternative solutions should provide as much relevant information as possible. Ultimately, the solutions to be meaningful must include supporting financial information if it is available in the case. All business decisions are assessed from a financial perspective. Ideally a case with some financial analysis should be selected.
Although an alternative solution may be “to collect more data or information” it will not be allowed in the case work as it would be limiting during decision making practice. It may however appear as part of the implementation.
Each alternative must include the following information:
- Costs and benefits;
- Leadership elements (employee productivity, motivation, and satisfaction)
- Other Strategic Elements – any major issues that might arise as a result of this alternative. Occasionally, there are some important weaknesses or threats from the situation analysis which you were not able to address within the marketing mix structure. This is the place to put them.
- Financial Elements (if possible) – these can go in the appendices.
When completing your Alternatives section, you should:
- Make sure the alternatives are objectively written – meaning no decision has yet been made as to which alternative will be selected;
- Alternatives must answer the core problem;
- There is no analysis done within the alternatives;
- Status quo must be included;
- Be sure to show financial costs analysis in detail which may be included as Appendices;
- Show linkages between Alternatives and SWOT – you can do this by writing “Link I” in the Alternative that corresponds to “Link I” in the SWOT. This linking ensures that each alternative solution flows from a key SWOT identified in the situation analysis;
- Have three to five detailed and well thought-out alternatives. Do not forget to include the status quo.
- Analysis of Alternative
The next step is to analyse the alternatives, in preparation for the decision as to which alternative will be implemented.
There are two parts to the analysis:
- To compare the alternatives on the basis of how well they meet each of the evaluative criteria.
- To list any other advantages or disadvantages of the alternative solutions not already covered in part one.
Part I – How Well Alternatives Meet the Criteria
A decision matrix is a useful way to assist in comparing alternatives on the basis of how well they meet the evaluative criteria.
- i) Weighting of criteria measures how important each criterion is compared to other criteria.
The criteria should be ranked in importance to the overall decision and total to 1.0 as per the example on the PowerPoint slide deck.
- ii) Once the criteria have been weighted, you must rate how well each alternative meets each criterion compared to the other alternatives. The rating scale is 1 -10 where 1 means the alternative does not meet the criterion at all compared to the other alternatives and 10 means the alternative fully meets the criterion compared to the others. The weightings and ratings must be justified in the report.
iii) The score for how well a specific alternative meets a specific criterion is calculated by multiplying the weight by the rating.
- The scores are then totaled for each alternative.
- The alternative with the highest total score may be the best choice but the advantage /disadvantage analysis remains before a decision is made.
Part II Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternatives
This part of the analysis of alternatives describes any advantages or disadvantages not already addressed in the criteria based analysis previously completed. How well each alternative fits the key SWOTs, is a question that will provide advantages and disadvantages for different alternatives.
- Decision and Justification
Decide which alternate provides the best solution to the central problem. Justify your choice by demonstrating why it is better than the other alternatives.
Justify the decision by:
- Using specifics from the situation analysis to show how your choice best fits the organization’s internal and external environment;
- Discussing why your choice best meets the organization’s evaluative criteria and best supports the organization’s long term objectives and mission;
- Using your financials to support the decision;
- Discussing the disadvantages of you solution and how they will be dealt with; and
- Selling the benefits of your solution.
Be careful in choosing your alternative. Avoid alternatives that could potentially solve the problem, but at the same time create a greater problem or require greater resources than the organization has.
You can only choose one alternative.
This section is to contain the Strategic Imperatives (most critical actions) that must be completed to allow for implementation of the solution. Concisely outline who should do what, when, where, why. Show clearly the time line and responsibility for each key event.
Ask yourself five questions to determine how solid your foundation is for implementing strategy.
- What people do I need involved?
- What resources do we need for a successful implementation?
- What structure do we need to provide?
- Do we have the systems in place to manage our processes?
- How does our strategy play into company culture?
The implementation should consist of two parts:
- Written description of your implementation
- Timeline in table format
When completing your Implementation, you should:
- Discuss the tactical implementation of your recommended alternative;
- For each P (i.e. Product, Promotion, Distribution and Price), discuss in detail what needs to be done, by when;
- Be specific and provide a detailed timeline;
- Depending on the case, the implementation should cover at least the 1st two quarters and perhaps look out one year; and
- Ensure that the plans are realistic given the company’s financial situation.
- Bibliography and Appendices:
Reference all work of other individuals including course notes, textbooks, journals, periodicals and all other sources. Also reference discussions held with experts. Apply APA reference style.
Feel free to include other supporting material, calculations, charts, graphs etc. in an appendix or appendices as long as the material adds value for the reader. Be sure to include the appendices including page numbers in the table of contents.