Case Study Scenario
J.T. is a 48-year old male who presents to the primary care clinic with fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst and increased appetite.
History of Present Illness
J.T. has been in his usual state of health until three weeks ago when he began experiencing symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst. He reports that he would like to begin a walking program, but he feels too fatigued to walk at any point during the day. Now he is very concerned about gaining more weight since he is eating more. He reports insomnia due to having to get up and urinate greater than 4 times per night.
Past Medical History
Both parents deceased
Brother: Type 2 diabetes
Denies alcohol or recreational drug use
No Known Drug Allergies
Lisinopril 20 mg once daily by mouth
Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily by mouth
Aspirin 81 mg once daily by mouth
Multivitamin once daily by mouth
Review of Systems
Constitutional: – fever, – chills, – weight loss.
Neurological: denies dizziness or disorientation
HEENT: Denies nasal congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat.
Chest: (-)Tachypnea. Denies cough.
Heart: Denies chest pain, chest pressure or palpitations.
Lymph: Denies lymph node swelling.
General Physical Exam
Constitutional: Alert and oriented male in no acute distress
Vital Signs: BP-136/80, T-98.6 F, P-78, RR-20
Wt. 240 lbs., Ht. 5’8″, BMI 36.5
Eyes: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation, normal conjunctiva.
Ears: Tympanic membranes intact.
Nose: Bilateral nasal turbinates without redness or swelling. Nares patent.
Mouth: Oropharynx clear. No mouth lesions. Teeth present and intact; Oral mucous membranes and lips dry.
Neck supple without JVD.
No lymphadenopathy, masses or carotid bruits.
Bilateral breath sounds clear throughout lung fields. Breathing quality deep with fruity breath odor
S1 and S2 regular rate and rhythm; – tachycardia; no rubs or murmurs.
Skin warm, dry; Nail beds pink without clubbing.
Test Patient’s Result Reference
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
J.T. is diagnosed with diabetes. Review all information provided in the case to answer the following questions.
Case Study Questions
Pathophysiology & Clinical Findings of the Disease
Review the lab findings and decide if the diagnosis is Type 2 or Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Explain the pathophysiology associated with your chosen diagnosis
Identify at least three subjective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.
Identify at least three objective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.
Management of the Disease
*Utilize the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support your treatment recommendations.
Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended medication classes for the treatment of this condition and provide an example (drug name) for each.
Describe the mechanism of action for each of the medication classes identified above.
Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended non-pharmacological treatment options for this patient.
Utilizes the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support the chosen treatment recommendations
Case Study Scenario